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About The Author: Renan Cardoso
Biography Aquele cinéfilo chato que assisti todo ano todos os filmes indicados em todas as categorias do Oscar!


  • User Ratings: 8,9 / 10
  • actor: Julia Stockler, António Fonseca
  • movie Info: Two sisters born in Rio de Janeiro make their way through life, each mistakenly believing the other is living out her dreams half a world away
  • Liked it: 1857 Votes
  • Duration: 2 hour, 19 M
  • 2019

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A vida invisível trailer oficial. A vida invisível de eurídice gusmão livro. A vida invisível. A vida invisivel de euridice gusmao torrent. 0:30 isso indica que ele ganhou algum prêmio no festival de Cannes ❓. A vida invisível watch online. A vida invisível karim aïnouz. A vida invisível critica. A vida invisível de eurídice gusmão assistir online. Assisti esse filme ontem, é simplesmente lindo! Chorei muito. É uma história poderosa. A vida invisível meus 2 centavos. Assistir esse filme a um tempao... e gostei. assistir novamente. A vida invisível completo. A vida invisível assistir online. My biggest turndown with Invisible Life's biggest competition inside Brazil this year ( Bacurau' was the excess of metaphors to make it a smart work. some of which have absolutely no contibution to the story. Still, it was able to provoke a lot of emotional reactions, it's specially smart and meaningful to watch from a Brazilian perspective. Invisible Life is something different, it's universal, delicate and rough at the same time, and it's story has no need to explaining. we all know what it is about. Still, they explain (the only reason why it's not a 100% for me.
Carol Duarte and Julia Stockler are incredible. Also need to mention the short appearance from Brazil's greatest actress of all time, Academy Award nominee Fernanda Montenegro, not only for the name but mostly because, after 120 minutes of the movie, her performance was still able to reach out to the emotions you built for the characters in the past 2 hours.
Overall, absolutely beautiful. The film is a visual spectacle, but also a beautiful and touching story.

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To torcendo muito para q o filme seja indicado ao Oscar. Imagina o quão incrível e importante ter um filme brasileiro indicado ao maior premio cinematográfico do mundo? Ainda mais nos tempos de hoje. To muito animado. Melhor filme brasileiro dos últimos anos. I am bit fed up with the double standard that some autor-films are spoken about. The characters of the movies are 1-dimensional. Or they are infantile patriarchal men or innocent women in a victim role. I assume that that even in the 50's relationships were a bit more complex. The use of camera and music/sounddesign doesn't reach the level of an average student film. Everything was announced and explained, no subtleties, no room for contemplation. The undoubtedly talented actresses were the only point of light in these films. Unfortunately drowned in a plot that not in any moment is believable. When at the end the granddaughter is played clearly by the same actress as the main character the audience in the cinema where I was started to laugh. Couldn't more painfully indicate the state of unbelief in which this film had to be endured.

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▌in Hindi▌ Dolittle Movie Watch


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  • Writer: Aled Warren
  • Biography I am a History Graduate living in London and I like to spend my time watching film and TV and very little else.

. Dolittle is a movie starring Robert Downey Jr., Antonio Banderas, and Michael Sheen. A physician who can talk to animals embarks on an adventure to find a legendary island with a young apprentice and a crew of strange pets. Stephen Gaghan. runtime=1 H 41m. release date=2020. countries=China, USA.

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Dolittle trailer music. In a competitive situation, Universal won the rights to the hot package after it hit town and garnered multiple bids from studios last week. Joe Roth and Jeff Kirschenbaum will produce for their Roth/Kirschenbaum Films alongside Susan Downey for Team Downey. Doctor Dolittle first hit the bit screen in the 1967 movie Doctor Dolittle, directed by Richard Fleischer and written by Leslie Bricusse based on the Lofting novels The Story of Doctor Dolittle, The Voyages of Doctor Dolittle and Doctor Dolittle's Circus. The story follows the eccentric Doctor John Dolittle, a former physician who lives with and treats animals, claiming that he can communicate with them. The film, which starred Rex Harrison and was a musical, was not well received at the time, but was nominated for an Oscar for best picture and won for best original song and visual effects. Another Dr. Dolittle pic was released in 1998 and starred Eddie Murphy in the titular role. The Fox film was a success and resulted in four sequels, although several went direct-to-video. Downey was most recently seen as Tony Stark in Captain America: Civil War and Avengers: Age of Ultron. He will reprise the role in the upcoming Spider-Man: Homecoming and Avengers: Infinity War. Gaghan won an Oscar for writing Steven Soderbergh’s Traffic. He also wrote and directed Syriana, and most recently penned and helmed Gold, starring Matthew McConaughey. CAA packaged the deal and reps Gaghan, Downey and Roth/Kirschenbaum. Additionally, Gaghan and Downey are repped by Hansen Jacobson; and Roth/Kirschenbaum by Ziffren Brittenham LLP. Shepherd is repped by WME, Think Tank Management and Jackoway Tyerman.

Dolittle csfs. Dolittle review 2020. This was a really good movie of cource it had its problems but it was a great cast, great story and i had a blast. It is not something you have to watch but if you went to The movies this is a good choice. Dolittle jip. Doolittle lynn. Most enjoyable film in a while.
Great set of actors making a truly enjoyable movie, very funny. RDJ get money from just talking to cgi lol. Dolittle online cz. Dolittle kino. Dolittle 2020 movie. Dolittle reviews. Dolittle cast.

Tom: roasts Anthony Anthony: rethinks all his life choices Tom: sips tea THE DEED HAS BEEN DONE ✅

Doolittle. Dolittle rotten tomatoes. Dolittle 2020 cast. Dolittle Full Movie 2020 (HD)720p. 𝕔𝕝𝕚𝕔𝕜 𝕙𝕖𝕣𝕖 👉 ➡ Leurs états de sant respectifs les empechent de s'approcher trop 2125. Like who started their new year with this motivational movie. Lets be real here, we all thought Dolittle would flop. However i have seen it. It is magical and wonderful. Good for all the family. 9/10. Dolittle soundtrack. Dolittle stories. Dolittle book. Better Title: Why Dolitte Do-Littled at the Box Office. Dolittle 2020 online. Se tem o eterno Tony n tem erro assitirei concerteza. I personally loved Dolittle. I family movie with lots of laughter and joy. I recommend. Dolittle titulky.

The Gorilla vs Tiger scene was actually pretty good. Especially, since it's like a crossover parody of Tarzan vs Sabor. Ok where is cilen dion we need new version of my heart gose on and on. I know how to turn on notifications stop telling me too. Dolittle betsy. Critics Consensus Dolittle may be enough to entertain very young viewers, but they deserve better than this rote adaptation's jumbled story and stale humor. 14% TOMATOMETER Total Count: 210 76% Audience Score Verified Ratings: 11, 497 Dolittle Ratings & Reviews Explanation Tickets & Showtimes The movie doesn't seem to be playing near you. Go back Enter your location to see showtimes near you. Dolittle Videos Photos Movie Info After losing his wife seven years earlier, the eccentric Dr. John Dolittle (Robert Downey Jr. ), famed doctor and veterinarian of Queen Victoria's England, hermits himself away behind the high walls of Dolittle Manor with only his menagerie of exotic animals for company. But when the young queen (Jessie Buckley, Wild Rose) falls gravely ill, a reluctant Dolittle is forced to set sail on an epic adventure to a mythical island in search of a cure, regaining his wit and courage as he crosses old adversaries and discovers wondrous creatures. The doctor is joined on his quest by a young, self-appointed apprentice (Dunkirk's Harry Collett) and a raucous coterie of animal friends, including an anxious gorilla (Oscar (R) winner Rami Malek), an enthusiastic but bird-brained duck (Oscar (R) winner Octavia Spencer), a bickering duo of a cynical ostrich (The Big Sick's Kumail Nanjiani) and an upbeat polar bear (John Cena, Bumblebee) and a headstrong parrot (Oscar (R) winner Emma Thompson), who serves as Dolittle's most trusted advisor and confidante. Rating: PG (for some action, rude humor and brief language) Genre: Directed By: Written By: In Theaters: Jan 17, 2020 wide On Disc/Streaming: Mar 24, 2020 Runtime: 106 minutes Studio: Universal Pictures Cast News & Interviews for Dolittle Critic Reviews for Dolittle Audience Reviews for Dolittle Dolittle Quotes Movie & TV guides.

Dolittle. 11:15 I thought that was Bill Burr for a second. Girl: Are you. Dr. Dolittle? RDJ: I. Am Iron Man. That was boring. Doolittle raid. Dolittle selena gomez. Dolittle review. Robert Downey Jr. is set to cast aside his Iron Man suit for Doctor Dolittle's coat. According to The Hollywood Reporter, the Marvel actor will star in The Voyage of Doctor Dolittle, to be directed by Oscar-winner Stephen Gaghan ( Traffic, Syriana, Gold) from the screenplay he wrote, based on an early draft by Tom Shepherd. Universal Pictures nabbed the awesome package deal after multiple bids by other major studios last week. The film is based on a series of children’s fantasy books penned by Hugh Lofting in the 1920s centering on an eccentric physician who is able to speak to animals. A musical starring My Fair Lady 's Rex Harrison in the titular role was released back in 1967 (I have some rather fond memories of that movie, which featured a giant sea snail). It received a Best Picture Oscar nomination and went on to win two Academy Awards: one for Best Song and the other for Best Special Effects. Eddie Murphy took on the role for a more comedic spin in 1998's Dr. Dolittle and its 2001 sequel, Dr. Dolittle 2. Hopefully, this new version will have a bit more fantasy to it (again GIANT SEA SNAIL). No news as to when The Voyage of Doctor Dolittle will film yet (early days and all that), or when Universal plans on releasing it. Downey will reprise his iconic role of Tony Stark in this summer's Spider-Man: Homecoming (July 7) and is currently busy filming the Russo Brothers' next two Avengers films. He's also set to reprise the role of the Great Detective in a third Sherlock Holmes movie. What do you think of The Voyage of Doctor Dolittle as another star vehicle for Robert Downey Jr.? (via THR) Make Your Inbox Important Like Comic-Con. Except every week in your inbox.

Dolittle preview. Dolittle movie review. Dolittle dragon. Tá, mas cadê o Eddie Murphy. Dolittle budget. Dolittle movie times. Dolittle rating. 2020: Tiki Room starring Dwayne Johnson. Dolittle film. Dolittle 2020. Dolittle song. Dolittle showtimes. The Voyages of Young Doctor Dolittle. Coronavirus Crisis Forces China to Cancel Dolittle, 1917 and Jojo Rabbit Releases Feb 4, 2020 The coronavirus crisis has hurt Hollywood further as several big titles have had to cancel release plans in China. Is Robert Downey Jr. to Blame for That Infamous Dragon Fart Scene in Dolittle? Kevin Burwick Feb 1, 2020 Dolittle was not the box office sensation that the studio was hoping for, but they may have known that early on. Dolittle Sinks with $100M in Estimated Box Office Losses Kevin Burwick Jan 20, 2020 Robert Downey Jr. 's Dolittle is already starting the year off as the first 2020 bomb, but it could lose more money than previously thought. That Crazy Dolittle Ending Has Robert Downey Jr. Fans Going Insane on Twitter Kevin Burwick Jan 19, 2020 Dolittle has not been getting rave reviews since it opened in theaters and viewers are taking to social media to reveal their thoughts. Bad Boys 3 and Dolittle Go After 1917 at This Weekend's Box Office Ryan Scott Jan 15, 2020 Sony Pictures' Bad Boys for Life and Universal's Dolittle open at the box office this weekend. Dolittle Review: Robert Downey Jr. Delivers a Delightful Family Adventure Julian Roman Jan 15, 2020 Robert Downey Jr. and the celebrity CGI voices are funnier than expected in Dolittle. 7 New Movies in Theaters You Can't Miss in January Evan Jacobs Dec 26, 2019 There are several new movies coming in the first month of 2020 making it a can't miss month at the theater. Watch Robert Downey Jr. Audition Dolittle Animal Friends - No Humans Allowed Brian B. Dec 10, 2019 Watch Robert Downey Jr. audition the most talented animals in the business for Dolittle. Rocket Raccoon and Robert Downey Jr. Reunite in BossLogic's Dolittle Poster Samantha Clair Nov 29, 2019 A fan-made Dolittle poster imagines a world where fans don't need to get used to seeing RDJ outside of the Marvel Cinematic Universe by adding an Endgame friend. Dolittle Character Posters Introduce Robert Downey Jr. 's Menagerie of Animal Pals Kevin Burwick Nov 27, 2019 Robert Downey Jr. and the cast of Dolittle have shared the character posters for the long-awaited movie. Bizarre Dolittle Promo Has Robert Downey Jr. Refereeing NFL Mascots Ryan Scott Oct 21, 2019 Avengers: Endgame star Robert Downey Jr. has started promoting his latest movie Dolittle by settling a dispute between two NFL mascots. Dolittle Trailer: Robert Downey Jr. Can Talk to Animals Kevin Burwick Oct 13, 2019 The long-awaited first trailer for Robert Downey Jr. 's Dolittle has finally arrived, teasing the movie's January release date. Dolittle Poster Brings First Look at Robert Downey Jr. as the Iconic Doctor Jeremy Dick Oct 13, 2019 Robert Downey Jr. is surrounded by animals as the titular doctor in the first official poster for Dolittle. Robert Downey Jr. 's Doctor Dolittle Recruits Ninja Turtles Director for Reshoots Kevin Burwick Apr 15, 2019 Jonathan Liebesman is helping to get the tone of Robert Downey Jr. 's The Voyage of Doctor Dolittle just right. John Cena, Tom Holland & More Join Robert Downey Jr. 's Dr. Dolittle Trevor Norkey Mar 27, 2018 Robert Downey Jr. has shared the full cast list for his upcoming remake The Voyage of Doctor DoLittle. Robert Downey Jr. Dolittle Reboot Gets a New Release Date Ryan Scott Apr 29, 2017 Universal Pictures is bringing Robert Downey Jr's Voyage of Doctor Dolittle too theaters sooner than expected. Baby Driver and Doctor Dolittle Reboot Get New Release Dates Mar 28, 2017 Universal has set a 2019 date for Robert Downey Jr. 's Doctor Dolittle, while Baby Driver gets pushed up nearly two months at Sony. Robert Downey Jr. Takes on The Voyage of Doctor Dolittle Mar 20, 2017 Robert Downey Jr. has boarded yet another potential franchise, signing on as the title character in The Voyage of Doctor Dolittle.



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Tomatometers 7,2 / 10 Star 2019 Directed by Tom Harper Jack Thorne 100 minutes story Pilot Amelia Rennes (Felicity Jones) and scientist James Glaisher (Eddie Redmayne) find themselves in an epic fight for survival while attempting to make discoveries in a gas balloon. If Eddie Redmayne was my instructor I wouldn't mind failing a few times to get more retakes with him 😏. Something went wrong, but don’t fret — let’s give it another shot. Greetings again from the darkness. 'Up, up, and away, in my beautiful balloon.' That song says nothing about a lack of oxygen (hypoxemia) a malfunctioning valve, or frost bite. all of which come into play in this story inspired by real life events of 1862 in London. Tom Harper directed the excellent WILD ROSE earlier this year, and for this one, he and his co-writer Jack Thorne (WONDER, 2017) base the story on both the real life record-breaking flight of scientist James Glaisher and balloon pilot Henry Coxwell, and Richard Holmes' book "Falling Upwards: How We Took to the Air.'
Reuniting from THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING (2014) where they played Stephen Hawking and wife Jane, are Eddie Redmayne (as scientist-with-a-chip James Glaisher) and Felicity Jones (as fictional balloon pilot Amelia Wren/Rennes. yes, naming your female pilot Amelia is so very creative. Courageous real life balloon pilot Henry Coxwell gets nary a mention here, as new world cinema must require a female lead or co-lead for every filmmaker not named Martin Scorsese. So, to heck with history, Amelia Wren is now the hero of this adventure!
As it turns out, Ms. Jones' character is the more interesting of the two. Amelia's initial showmanship catches nerdy Glaisher off-guard, though in fact, both are over-compensating. He, for his inferiority complex and the ridicule he endures from his fellow brainiacs at the Royal Society of London, and she for the tragic loss of her beloved husband in a balloon mishap. The mismatched pair are on a mission to fly higher than any human has previously flown, and in the process, allow Glaisher to record all the atmospheric readings possible in order to prove to the skeptics that meteorology is legitimate, and the weather can be predicted (although almost 160 years later, most weather reporters still haven't quite gotten the hang of it.
It's a tricky thing filming two characters who spend most of the movie floating tens of thousands of feet above ground in a wicker basket. The banter between the two should be crisp and the connection or disconnect should add intrigue. Here, the two characters are dwarfed by the giant balloon and the challenges that brings. What begins as an adventure morphs into a tale of survival. Storms, frostbite and technical issues provide the conflict. We do have flashbacks to background on both Amelia and Glaisher. Himesh Patel (star of this year's YESTERDAY) plays Glaisher's best friend, while Tom Courtenay and Anne Reid are Glaisher's parents. Vincent Perez appears as Amelia's husband Pierre.
I was fortunate enough to see this in a theatre and the big screen allows for the balloon effects to have full impact. There is no doubt that streaming this on your TV will not be as impressive. although anyone suffering from acrophobia will likely still experience some discomfort. The scenes in the balloon are thrilling, and Amelia's rescue mission up the ropes is stunning and beautifully filmed by cinematographer George Steel; however, the flashback scenes are quick to deflate the excitement. The upside here is that the English really did break the French record on the flight. even if the filmmaker had to bend history so Amelia could get credit.


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But then, the movie is over and I leave the theater as someone who was invited to a feast and ended up munching some peanuts. where is the promised feast?
Awesome photography, great scenarios but there is nothing in the movie to fill them. Hollow, dry.

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Writer: masato uematsu

Info: 植松眞人。コピーライター&クリエイティブディレクター。東京コピーライターズクラブ会員。最近は母校のビジュアルアーツ専門学校で講師とかも。




BDRIP The Turning Free Full

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Votes: 767

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Scores 2553 votes


Duration 94 Minutes

rating 3,9 of 10

Genre Drama

I did not realize they're making a movie adaptation of Scary Stories to tell in the Dark.


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Why didnt she smack that little rat boy like he whipped the horse to let him learn his place. I feel so bad for Finn. i really like him and he's so talented but his fanbase is obnoxious and they get him in trouble so much. Still wanna watch this movie and see if it's any good though. I use to read scary stories when I was a kid. I remember how addictive the books were. You knew they never end well but the writing is so well you just can't close the book.

Calafrio free fall. Calafrio Free full article. Calafrio free full body. Calafrio free full movies 2017. Calafrio free full episode. Look up turning in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool describes a helical toolpath by moving within a plane while the workpiece rotates. Turning or The Turning may also refer to: Film [ edit] Turning (film), documentary art film by Charles Atlas The Turning (1992 film), an American film The Turning (2013 film), an Australian film based on Tim Winton short stories The Turning (2020 film), a film adaptation of The Turn of the Screw by Henry James Music [ edit] Turning (album), soundtrack album for Charles Atlas film, by Antony and the Johnsons Turning (Suzanne Ciani album), an album by Suzanne Ciani The Turning (album), a 1987 album by Sam Phillips "The Turning", a song by Oasis from the album Dig Out Your Soul Other media [ edit] The Turning (stories), a collection of short stories by Tim Winton The Turning (play), by Bill McCluskey See also [ edit] Turning Point (disambiguation).

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Director: RDJ do u want to be Dolittle? RDJ: Sure, but Im bringing Tom Holland with me

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Writer: YEG Reviews Bot
Info: Reviews posted from Opinions expressed are not my own! I am a bot! I did not write these!




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2019. genre Drama. Zsuzsa F. Várkonyi. Tomatometer 8 / 10 Star. Runtime 83 Minutes. Állítólag a forgatásokon Stohl András kokaint és speedet fogyasztott. Los mineros que quedaron atrapados en chile. Los que quedaron en el podium y.

Los artistas que quedaron en la ruina. Los heroes que quedaron. Los que quedaron atras. Köszönet az igényes feltöltésért. Los que quedaron vivos en infinity war. A los heroes que quedaron. Columnist: BlogIndex Hu Barnabás Tóth reviews - Akik maradtak is a movie starring Károly Hajduk, Abigél Szõke, and Mari Nagy. A lyrical story of the healing power of love in the midst of national conflict, loss and trauma, Those Who Remained reveals the healing process of duration - 83min casts - Mari Nagy, Abigél Szõke release Date - 2019 writer - Klára Muhi Akik maradtak Movie online casino. Akik maradtak Movie online store. Akik maradtak Movie online pharmacy. Cast Katalin Simkó, Barnabás Horkay, Andor Lukáts, Mari Nagy, Károly Hajduk, Adél Jordán Akik maradtak Movie online. Akik maradtak film online. Ez a honlap a jobb szolgáltatás érdekében sütiket használ A sütikre vonatkozó beállításokat bármikor megváltoztathatja böngészőjében. Amennyiben nem változtat a beállításokon, beleegyezik az összes süti használatába. Similar Movies to Akik maradtak. While many holocaust survivors openly express rage and uncontrolled bitterness towards their persecutors, other survivors display only an emotional deadness and a pervasive feeling of being alone and scared. In the movie "Fateless, Gyuri, a young man sent to Buchenwald, moves from a childlike innocence to world-weariness in the span of one year. When he comes home, he feels more alone than he did at the camp and even expresses a sort of homesickness for the camaraderie he felt. As a disfigured Holocaust survivor in Christian Petzold's "Phoenix, Nina Hoss' shattered look, repressed emotions, and shaky voice feel so natural that her gradual awakening to life epitomizes a Phoenix rising from the ashes. Hungary's entry for Best International Feature Film at the 2019 Academy Awards, Barnabás Tóth's ( Camembert Rose" Those Who Remained (Akik maradtak) asks us to rethink our idea of what liberation meant to those just released from the camps. Based on the 2004 novel of the same name by Zsuzsa F. Varkonyi and set in Budapest between 1948 and 1953, the suffering of the Holocaust years are deeply etched on the face of Doctor Aládar (Aldo) Körner (Károly Hajduk, One Day. a slender, gaunt man of about forty who is going through the motions of his Ob-Gyn practice at a Budapest hospital, but the look in his eyes cannot hide the trauma of his wife's death and that of his two young boys. Coming from the Israelite Community Orphanage, Klára (Abigél Szõke, X - The eXploited. a mature-looking 16-year-old girl, sees Dr. Körner, for a gynecological exam to find out why her puberty has come so late. At first, angry, fearful, and wound into a tight knot, when she reaches out and suddenly embraces the doctor, it is clear that she is seeking more than an exam but a respite from her desperate loneliness. Outspoken in her disdain for her classmates at school and her great-aunt Olgi (Mari Nagy, Budapest Noir" with whom she lives, Klára only begins to reveal her repressed humanity when Aldo responds to her like a fellow human being in pain, not a wounded animal. Bringing the film to life with her tremendously affecting performance, Szõke refuses to return to Olgi even though she loves her and wants her to be happy. Instead, she moves in with Aldo who acts as a foster father, sharing custody with her aunt. He makes the rules, however, and is strict about physical contact, especially when she crawls into bed with him at night. Gradually, both open up though to each other. They talk about God, her parents, the sister she feels guilty about not being able to save from death, and, in a tender scene, he shares with her his photo album from before the war. Though Aldo strictly adheres to the rules of propriety, their developing relationship raises some eyebrows, and the interest of Soviet operatives. Amidst talk of a Soviet crackdown on personal freedoms, Aldo and Klára do their best to be discreet, but it does not prevent others from gossiping. In one instance, after being seen in a park laying her head on Aldo's lap, Klára is defiant when interrogated by a Communist official. Similarly, Pista (Andor Lukáts, The Whiskey Bandit. Aldo's colleague at work, says that people have disappeared during the night and tells him that he has joined the Communist Party and has been asked to inform on him. Those Who Remained is an intimate look at two damaged souls who have been bruised and shaken by life but are now ready to begin the reconstruction of their life, a process which will, in Percy Bysshe Shelley's phrase "lift the veil from the hidden beauty of the world. " Knowing that any expression of the love they feel for each other will push the boundaries of what is considered acceptable, both realize that their protestations of innocence will not be enough to keep them safe, and that they must now reach out to others, bringing solace and joy in a world in dire need of both. Lydia 😜. Értékelés: 66 szavazatból Egy kamaszlány és egy középkorú férfi egymásra találásának megható hangvételű története a második világháború után. Mindketten sokat veszítettek, és mindketten szeretnének új életet kezdeni, miközben körülöttük már a Rákosi-rendszer diktatúrája alakul. Vajon túl lehet-e élni a múlt és a jövő tragédiáit, ha összekapaszkodnak azok, akik még megmaradtak? Bemutató dátuma: 2019. szeptember 26. Forgalmazó: Budapest Film Stáblista:. Nagyon jó. Számomra még mindig értelmetlen hogy hol fáj másnak ha valaki meleg? Aznem nézik le aki teli van tetoválásokkal? Akin minden mű? Aki minden este satu részeg? Hát baszki ők is éljenek Nekik is van életük. Hadd éljék Miért fárasszák emberek ezrei azon magukat hogy. véget vessenek a melegségnek. Ez olyan mintha a tetoválást akarnád eltüntetni. Vagy a szilikon mellet. El lehet. De örökre nyoma marad. 13/02/2020 Drame 2019, Filmovi 2019, Traileri Those Who Remained / Oni koji su ostali U kinima od septembra 2019. god. Žanr: Drama Režija: Barnabás Tóth Glavne uloge: Károly Hajduk, Abigél Szõke, Mari Nagy, Barnabás Horkay, Katalin Simkó, Andor Lukáts … Radnja filma: Priča o iscjeliteljskoj moći ljubavi usred nacionalnog sukoba, gubitka i trauma. ‘Oni koji su ostali’ otkriva proces ozdravljenja preživjelih holokausta kroz oči djevojke u Mađarskoj nakon Drugog svjetskog rata …. Akik maradtak movies online. Zseniális. Akik maradtak Movie online ecouter. Akik maradtak magyar film online Elitélem a homosexualitást. Nagyon jó film mindenkinek ajánlom 👍. Akik maradtak Movie. Akik maradtak Movie online poker. "'''[Online-Filmek] Akik maradtak teljes film magyar online | Online Magyarul Akik maradtak letöltése ingyen, Akik maradtak online mozicsillag/indavideo Akik maradtak online teljes film, Akik maradtak teljes film online, Akik maradtak teljes film indavideo, Akik maradtak teljes film magyarul ingyen, Akik maradtak teljes film letöltés. ᐈᐉ Film Linkek Akik maradtak teljes film online Akik maradtak dráma | 88 perc | 2019. szeptember 26. Tartalom: Közvetlenül a háború utáni Magyarországon egy magányos, finom lelkű nőgyógyász rendelőjébe elhoznak egy kissé dühödt, késő pubertás korral és családja elvesztésével küzdő vadóc kamaszlányt. Az orvos személyében a kislány azonnal felismeri a lelki társat. Hiszen egymástól függetlenül ugyanazt a traumát élték át, szeretteik elvesztését. Ennek a két szenzibilis embernek nemtől és életkortól független fokozatos lelki egymásra találása ez az érzékenyen komponált és megkapóan csendes film, ami úgy tud beszélni egy általános szintre emelt háborús kataklizmáról és az azt követő embertelen diktatúráról, hogy a nyomasztó politikai terhek mindvégig kellő súllyal, mondhatni állandó fenyegetettségként, de mégiscsak pusztán háttéreseményként szolgálnak. Mert a tényleges fókuszt a humánum, a mindenen átívelő emberség kapja, mely halkan figyelmeztet bennünket, hogy soha semmilyen körülmények között nem lenne szabad megfeledkeznünk arról, hogy elsősorban szeretetre és biztonságra vágyó, törékeny és érző emberek vagyunk. F. Várkonyi Zsuzsa “Férfiidők lányregénye” c. könyve alapján Akik maradtak (2019) Teljes Film Magyarul Online [Magyar szinkron] Akik maradtak elozetes | Akik maradtak port | Akik maradtak 2019. | Akik maradtak teljes film | Akik maradtak mozicsillag | Akik maradtak megjelenés | Akik maradtak bemutató | Akik maradtak film online | Akik maradtak indavideo | Akik maradtak magyar elozetes | Akik maradtak online film | Akik maradtak online filmek | Akik maradtak online magyar | Akik maradtak szereplok | Akik maradtak online film online filmnézés | Akik maradtak teljes film online | Akik maradtak teljes film magyarul | Akik maradtak youtube | Akik maradtak teljes film online magyar szinkronnal Akik maradtak, Akik maradtak online, Akik maradtak előzetes magyarul, Akik maradtak ingyen letöltés, Akik maradtak netmozi, Akik maradtak magyar 2019. szeptember 26., Akik maradtak film online, Akik maradtak teljes film, Akik maradtak teljes film videa, Akik maradtak indavideo, Akik maradtak magyarul online, Akik maradtak teljes film magyarul indavideo, Akik maradtak online videa, Akik maradtak online teljes film, Akik maradtak online film magyarul, Akik maradtak teljes film indavideo, Akik maradtak teljes film magyarul ingyen, Akik maradtak teljes film letöltés, Akik maradtak videa magyarul, Akik maradtak teljes film videa. #Hungary #Magyarul #Teljes #Magyar #Film #Videa #2019 #mafab #mozi #IndAvIdeo"". 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Los que se quedaron pelicula cristiana completa. Minden negatív kommentet törölnek, ami nekik nem tetszik. Mások hitét sértő film. Én nem szoktam beletaposni a nem keresztény emberekbe mint ez a film teszi a keresztényekkel. Szomorú, hogy nektek ez a demokrácia. Hotel quartier de l'opéra paris. Oh! Movies Flixreel Delishows FMovies Go Movies 123 Movies SolarMovie Putlocker Movies 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 TV Series ABC CBS FOX HBO NBC Netflix The CW Disclaimer: This site does not store any files on its server. All contents are provided by non-affiliated third parties. Copyright Oh! Movies © 2020. All rights reserved. Blog Contact Ratings TOP IMDb.

Ma néztük meg hittanórán. A végén elsírtam magam. Nagyon szép és lényegretörő. Los que quedaron pelicula. Mi az üzenet? Valaki megfogalmazza épkézláb mondatban pl a nagy könyvmolyok akik olvasták stb. Mert egyik oldalról a b. ást hallom a másikról meg a együttérzést. Nekem elsőre az jön le, hogy az összes meleg klisét elfogják lőni, a milyen nehéz nekik sajnáljuk őket. Bár érdekest tényt próbál feszegetni, hogy miért a hetero a normál de szinte biztos vagyok benne, hogy nem erre lesz kihegyezve a dolog hanem világbéke dologra. Szóval morális, kulturális témákat nem fog érinteni, hanem egy tucat sablon karakter lesz rángatva, ami nem lenne probléma ha céltalan lenne a film, de itt gondolom most melegeket próbálják tolni,hogy elfogadottabbak legyenek. Majd megnézzem online ha nagyon nem lesz semmi sorozat vagy film, de ezt randifilmnek se lehetne mondani. Baromi nagy közönséget zárnak ki, de úgy is a kasszáknál dől el minden, hogy pl egy deadpoolal kell versenyeznie v vmi hasonlóval mellette valami animációs filmmel. Ritka az olyan hónap amikor megengedhetik, hogy ilyen típusú filmet kitoljanak.

Ezt Troye SIlva-tól ismertem meg, tetszik a film. Meg akarom nézni. Los que se quedaron la pelicula. Hotel quartier du lac bordeaux. Los que quedaron fuera del mundial. Los que se quedaron atras. A wellplayed touching film. Good acting, Good subject, Good shooting. Recommended. Los que se quedaron pelicula cristiana. Nekem nagyon tetszett meg úgy is hogy nem vagyok meleg. Pelicula los que se quedaron completa. Los boxeadores que quedaron en la ruina. Los vengadores que quedaron vivos. Amilyen rövid,annyira hatalmas!Köszönöm. Los famosos que quedaron en la ruina.

Los dinosaurios que quedaron vivos. Los que se quedaron. Los que se quedaron pelicula. Hotel quartier de la défense paris. Los famosos que quedaron pobres. Predica los que se quedaron. Los que se quedaron cine judio. Los que se quedaron en los huesitos.

Los deportistas que se quedaron en bancarrota. Az asszony tök jó szívvel vesz neki egy ajándékot a férfi meg a képébe vágja hogy milyen szar.😤😬😩😣. Los que se quedaron trailer. Los que quedaron en yo me llamo. Hannah ❤. While many holocaust survivors openly express rage and uncontrolled bitterness towards their persecutors, other survivors display only an emotional deadness and a pervasive feeling of being alone and scared. In the movie "Fateless, Gyuri, a young man sent to Buchenwald, moves from a childlike innocence to world-weariness in the span of one year. When he comes home, he feels more alone than he did at the camp and even expresses a sort of homesickness for the camaraderie he felt. As a disfigured Holocaust survivor in Christian Petzold's "Phoenix, Nina Hoss' shattered look, repressed emotions, and shaky voice feel so natural that her gradual awakening to life epitomizes a Phoenix rising from the ashes.
Hungary's entry for Best International Feature Film at the 2019 Academy Awards, Barnabás Tóth's ( Camembert Rose" Those Who Remained (Akik maradtak) asks us to rethink our idea of what liberation meant to those just released from the camps. Based on the 2004 novel of the same name by Zsuzsa F. Varkonyi and set in Budapest between 1948 and 1953, the suffering of the Holocaust years are deeply etched on the face of Doctor Aládar (Aldo) Körner (Károly Hajduk, One Day. a slender, gaunt man of about forty who is going through the motions of his Ob-Gyn practice at a Budapest hospital, but the look in his eyes cannot hide the trauma of his wife's death and that of his two young boys.
Coming from the Israelite Community Orphanage, Klára (Abigél Szõke, X - The eXploited. a mature-looking 16-year-old girl, sees Dr. Körner, for a gynecological exam to find out why her puberty has come so late. At first, angry, fearful, and wound into a tight knot, when she reaches out and suddenly embraces the doctor, it is clear that she is seeking more than an exam but a respite from her desperate loneliness. Outspoken in her disdain for her classmates at school and her great-aunt Olgi (Mari Nagy, Budapest Noir" with whom she lives, Klára only begins to reveal her repressed humanity when Aldo responds to her like a fellow human being in pain, not a wounded animal.
Bringing the film to life with her tremendously affecting performance, Szõke refuses to return to Olgi even though she loves her and wants her to be happy. Instead, she moves in with Aldo who acts as a foster father, sharing custody with her aunt. He makes the rules, however, and is strict about physical contact, especially when she crawls into bed with him at night. Gradually, both open up though to each other. They talk about God, her parents, the sister she feels guilty about not being able to save from death, and, in a tender scene, he shares with her his photo album from before the war.
Though Aldo strictly adheres to the rules of propriety, their developing relationship raises some eyebrows, and the interest of Soviet operatives. Amidst talk of a Soviet crackdown on personal freedoms, Aldo and Klára do their best to be discreet, but it does not prevent others from gossiping. In one instance, after being seen in a park laying her head on Aldo's lap, Klára is defiant when interrogated by a Communist official. Similarly, Pista (Andor Lukáts, The Whiskey Bandit. Aldo's colleague at work, says that people have disappeared during the night and tells him that he has joined the Communist Party and has been asked to inform on him.
Those Who Remained is an intimate look at two damaged souls who have been bruised and shaken by life but are now ready to begin the reconstruction of their life, a process which will, in Percy Bysshe Shelley's phrase "lift the veil from the hidden beauty of the world." Knowing that any expression of the love they feel for each other will push the boundaries of what is considered acceptable, both realize that their protestations of innocence will not be enough to keep them safe, and that they must now reach out to others, bringing solace and joy in a world in dire need of both.

Sziasztok! Lehet kritizálni de nagyon klasssz film lett! Nekem nagyon tetszik. Sajnálom hogy vannak akik viccet csinőltak belőle. Viszont mit meg nem adnék ha Simon helyébe lehetnék. Los niños que quedaron atrapados en la cueva. Ohhhhhh de aranyos ez a film. Los jugadores que quedaron pobres. Tóth Barnabás, amúgy is, de ezért a rövidfilmért még inkább imádlak! Zseni vagy. Ez most arra akar utalni hogy legyél meleg?😐 😕 😞ez undorító. Los que se quedaron en badabun. Los ministerios que quedaron. Las que quedan. A los que quedaron aqui. Sziaztok milyen volt a buli? Simon: Fasza 😂.

Los que se quedaron en el 90. Megható, tömör, remek. Los chilenos que se quedaron atrapados. No eran diez los que quedaron limpios. UTOLSÓ ÚJRATERVEZÉS Újratervezés hallhatjuk nagyon sokszor ha eltévedtünk,vagy letértünk utunkról. A technika átvette felelősségünk mindenkor ránk szól a gép, ha eltévelygünk. Könnyű neki, mert az ő agya tárolja, és azt is tudja ilyenkor mi a dolga. Mi emberek terveztük e csodás gépet, de nem gondoltuk, hogy felülmúl bennünket. Az életünkben hányszor újratervezünk mégis nagyon sokszor, a rossz úton megyünk. Nagy árat fizetünk balgaságainkért elvesztjük emberségünket, hatalomért. Egyszer majd túlkésőn, csak azt vesszük észre elérkezett a gyarló életünk vége. Újra terveznénk, de az akku lemerült, rosszul tervezett utunk kátyúba került. A szívünket tölteni, sajnos nem lehet, rossz útvonalunk felemésztett bennünket. Utunk véget ért, álmaink mind elfogytak, de kívánjunk jó utat  az utódoknak.

Coauthor: Joël Le Pavous

Resume: Journaliste et fixeur en #Hongrie • Vigie @courrierinter • Correspondant @slatefr, @LeTelegramme, @LeTemps, @Europe1 • Auteur Dictionnaire insolite @Cosmopole.



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Birds Temporal range: Early Cretaceous ( Aptian) – Present, [1] 121–0 Mya PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Clade: Ornithurae Class: Aves Linnaeus, 1758 [2] Extant Orders and temporal range See orders * Infraclass Palaeognathae Superorder Struthionimorphae Struthioniformes (Ostrichs) – 58? –0 Mya, Late Paleocene? – Present Superorder Notopalaeognathae Rheiformes (Rheas) – 56–0 Mya, Late Paleocene –Present Tinamiformes (Tinamous) – 10–0 Mya, Middle Miocene –Present Casuariiformes (Casowaries and Emus) – 58. 7–0 Mya, Late Paleocene –Present Apterygiformes (Kiwis) – 23. 03–0 Mya, Early Miocene –Present Infraclass Neognathae Superorder Galloanserae Galliformes (Gamebirds) – 45–0 Mya, Middle Eocene –Present Anseriformes (Waterfowl) – 71–0 Mya, Late Cretaceous ( Maastrichtian)–Present Superorder Neoaves Phoenicopteriformes (Flamingos) – 50–0 Mya, Early Eocene –Present Podicipediformes (Grebes) – 25–0 Mya, Late Oligocene –Present Columbiformes (Pigeons and doves) – 23. 03–0 Mya, Early Miocene –Present Mesitornithiformes (Mesites) – No fossil records Pterocliformes (Sandgrouse) – 33. 9–0 Mya, Late Oligocene –Present Apodiformes (swifts, treeswifts and hummingbirds) – 52–0 Mya, Early Eocene –Present Caprimulgiformes (Nightjars, nighthawks, potoos, oilbirds, frogmouths and owlet-nightjars) – 59. 2–0 Mya, Middle Paleocene –Present Cuculiformes (Cuckoos, anis, etc) – 34–0 Mya, Late Miocene –Present Otidiformes (Bustards, floricans, etc) – 13–0 Mya, Middle Miocene –Present Musophagiformes (Turacos and go-away-birds) – 24–0 Mya, Late Oligocene –Present Opisthocomiformes (Hoatzin) – 33. 9–0 Mya, Late Eocene –Present Gruiformes (Cranes, crakes, rails, wood-rails, fluftais, gallinules, limpkins, trumpeters, finfoots and sungrebes) – 66–0 Mya, Late Cretaceous ( Maastrichtian)–Present Charadriiformes (Plovers, crab plovers, lapwings, seagulls, puffins, auks, sandipipers, buttonquails, stilts, avocets, ibisbills, woodcocks, skuas, etc) – 75–0 Mya, Late Cretaceous ( Campanian)–Present Gaviiformes (Loons) – 70–0 Mya, Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)–Present Procellariiformes (petrels, storm petrels, albatrosses and diving petrels) – 33. 9–0 Mya, Early Oligocene –Present Sphenisciformes (penguins) – 62–0 Mya, Early Paleocene –Present Ciconiiformes (storks, openbills and jabirus) – 30–0 Mya, Early Oligocene –Present Suliformes (boobiess, gannets, fregatbirds, cormorants, shags and anhigas) – 90–0 Mya, Late Cretaceous ( Turonian)–Present Pelecaniformes (pelicans, ibises, shoebills, egretts, herons, etc) – 66–0 Mya, Late Cretaceous ( Maastrichtian)–Present Eurypygiformes (sunbitterns and kagu) – 56–0 Mya, Late Paleocene –Present Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) – 58. 7–0 Mya, Late Paleocene–Present Cathartiformes (New World vultures) – 41–0 Mya, Middle Eocene –Present Accipitriformes (eagles, Old World vultures, secretary-birds, hawks, harriers, etc) – 47–0 Mya, Late Eocene–Present Strigiformes (owls) – 30–0 Mya, Early Oligocene –Present Coliiformes (mousebirds) – ~65–0 Mya, Early Paleocene –Present Leptosomiformes (cuckoorollers) – No fossil record Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) – 49–0 Mya, Early Eocene –Present Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoes and wood-hoopoes) – ~40–0 Mya, Middle Eocene–Present Coraciiformes (rollers, bee eaters, todys, kingfishers, etc) – 41. 2–0 Mya, Middle Eocene–Present Piciformes (woodpeckers, flickers, toucans, aracaris, motmots, etc) – 56–0 Mya, Early Eocene–Present Cariamiformes (seriema) – 66–0 Mya, Late Cretaceous ( Maastrichtian)–Present Falconiformes (falcons and caracaras) – 50–0 Mya, Early Eocene –Present Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) – 50–0 Mya, Early Eocene–Present Passeriformes (passerines) – 52. 5–0 Mya, Early Eocene–Present Synonyms Neornithes Gadow, 1883 Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2. 75 m (9 ft) ostrich. There are about ten thousand living species, [3] more than half of which are passerine, or "perching" birds. Birds have wings whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming. Birds are a group of feathered theropod dinosaurs, and constitute the only living dinosaurs. Likewise, the closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Birds are descendants of the primitive avialans (whose members include Archaeopteryx) which first appeared about 160 million years ago (mya) in China. According to DNA evidence, modern birds ( Neornithes) evolved in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, and diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 mya, which killed off the pterosaurs and all non-avian dinosaurs. Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals; several bird species make and use tools, with certain birds' use of tools rivaling the best performances of primates. [4] [5] [6] Many social species pass on knowledge across generations, which is considered a form of culture. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and songs, and participating in such behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially (but not necessarily sexually) monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous (one male with many females) or, rarely, polyandrous (one female with many males). Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs, meat, and feathers. Songbirds, parrots, and other species are popular as pets. Guano (bird excrement) is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds figure throughout human culture. About 120 to 130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, and hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1, 200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them. Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. Evolution and classification The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. [7] Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system currently in use. [8] Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. [9] Definition Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most commonly defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. [10] However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, and is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds. This was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, and assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, [11] in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs. Gauthier [12] identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", which is a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below. He assigned other names to the other groups. The birds' phylogenetic relationships to major living reptile groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles (alternately Avemetatarsalia) Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers (alternately Avifilopluma) Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly (alternately Avialae) Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the currently living birds and all of its descendants (a "crown group", in this sense synonymous with Neornithes) Under the fourth definition Archaeopteryx is an avialan, and not a member of Aves. Gauthier's proposals have been adopted by many researchers in the field of palaeontology and bird evolution, though the exact definitions applied have been inconsistent. Avialae, initially proposed to replace the traditional fossil content of Aves, is often used synonymously with the vernacular term "bird" by these researchers. [13] Most researchers define Avialae as branch-based clade, though definitions vary. Many authors have used a definition similar to "all theropods closer to birds than to Deinonychus. " [14] [15] Avialae is also occasionally defined as an apomorphy-based clade (that is, one based on physical characteristics). Jacques Gauthier, who named Avialae in 1986, re-defined it in 2001 as all dinosaurs that possessed feathered wings used in flapping flight, and the birds that descended from them. [12] [16] Dinosaurs and the origin of birds Cladogram following the results of a phylogenetic study by Cau et al., 2015. [18] Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, [19] and more specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurs and oviraptorids, among others. [20] As scientists have discovered more theropods closely related to birds, the previously clear distinction between non-birds and birds has become blurred. Recent discoveries in the Liaoning Province of northeast China, which demonstrate many small theropod feathered dinosaurs, contribute to this ambiguity. [21] [22] [23] The consensus view in contemporary palaeontology is that the flying theropods, or avialans, are the closest relatives of the deinonychosaurs, which include dromaeosaurids and troodontids. [24] Together, these form a group called Paraves. Some basal members of this group, such as Microraptor, have features which may have enabled them to glide or fly. The most basal deinonychosaurs were very small. This evidence raises the possibility that the ancestor of all paravians may have been arboreal, have been able to glide, or both. [25] [26] Unlike Archaeopteryx and the non-avialan feathered dinosaurs, who primarily ate meat, recent studies suggest that the first avialans were omnivores. [27] The Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx is well known as one of the first transitional fossils to be found, and it provided support for the theory of evolution in the late 19th century. Archaeopteryx was the first fossil to display both clearly traditional reptilian characteristics—teeth, clawed fingers, and a long, lizard-like tail—as well as wings with flight feathers similar to those of modern birds. It is not considered a direct ancestor of birds, though it is possibly closely related to the true ancestor. [28] Early evolution Confuciusornis sanctus, a Cretaceous bird from China that lived 125 million years ago, is the oldest known bird to have a beak. [29] The earliest known avialan fossils come from the Tiaojishan Formation of China, which has been dated to the late Jurassic period ( Oxfordian stage), about 160 million years ago. The avialan species from this time period include Anchiornis huxleyi, Xiaotingia zhengi, and Aurornis xui. [13] The well-known early avialan, Archaeopteryx, dates from slightly later Jurassic rocks (about 155 million years old) from Germany. Many of these early avialans shared unusual anatomical features that may be ancestral to modern birds, but were later lost during bird evolution. These features include enlarged claws on the second toe which may have been held clear of the ground in life, and long feathers or "hind wings" covering the hind limbs and feet, which may have been used in aerial maneuvering. [30] Avialans diversified into a wide variety of forms during the Cretaceous Period. [31] Many groups retained primitive characteristics, such as clawed wings and teeth, though the latter were lost independently in a number of avialan groups, including modern birds (Aves). While the earliest forms, such as Archaeopteryx and Jeholornis, retained the long bony tails of their ancestors, [31] the tails of more advanced avialans were shortened with the advent of the pygostyle bone in the group Pygostylia. In the late Cretaceous, about 100 million years ago, the ancestors of all modern birds evolved a more open pelvis, allowing them to lay larger eggs compared to body size. [32] Around 95 million years ago, they evolved a better sense of smell. [33] Early diversity of bird ancestors Ichthyornis, which lived 93 million years ago, was the first known prehistoric bird relative preserved with teeth. Mesozoic bird phylogeny simplified after Wang et al., 2015's phylogenetic analysis. [34] The first large, diverse lineage of short-tailed avialans to evolve were the enantiornithes, or "opposite birds", so named because the construction of their shoulder bones was in reverse to that of modern birds. Enantiornithes occupied a wide array of ecological niches, from sand-probing shorebirds and fish-eaters to tree-dwelling forms and seed-eaters. While they were the dominant group of avialans during the Cretaceous period, enantiornithes became extinct along with many other dinosaur groups at the end of the Mesozoic era. [31] Many species of the second major avialan lineage to diversify, the Euornithes (meaning "true birds", because they include the ancestors of modern birds), were semi-aquatic and specialised in eating fish and other small aquatic organisms. Unlike the enantiornithes, which dominated land-based and arboreal habitats, most early euornithes lacked perching adaptations and seem to have included shorebird-like species, waders, and swimming and diving species. The latter included the superficially gull -like Ichthyornis [35] and the Hesperornithiformes, which became so well adapted to hunting fish in marine environments that they lost the ability to fly and became primarily aquatic. [31] The early euornithes also saw the development of many traits associated with modern birds, like strongly keeled breastbones, toothless, beaked portions of their jaws (though most non-avian euornithes retained teeth in other parts of the jaws). [36] Euornithes also included the first avialans to develop true pygostyle and a fully mobile fan of tail feathers, [37] which may have replaced the "hind wing" as the primary mode of aerial maneuverability and braking in flight. [30] A study on mosaic evolution in the avian skull found that the last common ancestor of all neornithes might have had a beak similar to that of the modern hook-billed vanga and a skull similar to that of the Eurasian golden oriole. As both species are small aerial and canopy foraging omnivores, a similar ecological niche was inferred for this hypothetical ancestor. [38] Diversification of modern birds All modern birds lie within the crown group Aves (alternately Neornithes), which has two subdivisions: the Palaeognathae, which includes the flightless ratites (such as the ostriches) and the weak-flying tinamous, and the extremely diverse Neognathae, containing all other birds. [39] These two subdivisions are often given the rank of superorder, [40] although Livezey and Zusi assigned them "cohort" rank. [9] Depending on the taxonomic viewpoint, the number of known living bird species varies anywhere from 9, 800 [41] to 10, 758. [42] The discovery of Vegavis, a late Cretaceous member of the Anatidae, proved that the diversification of modern birds started before the Cenozoic era. [43] The affinities of an earlier fossil, the possible galliform Austinornis lentus, dated to about 85 million years ago, [44] are still too controversial to provide a fossil evidence of modern bird diversification. Most studies agree on a Cretaceous age for the most recent common ancestor of modern birds but estimates range from the Middle Cretaceous [1] to the latest Late Cretaceous. [45] Similarly, there is no agreement on whether most of the early diversification of modern birds occurred before or after the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event. [46] This disagreement is in part caused by a divergence in the evidence; most molecular dating studies suggests a Cretaceous evolutionary radiation, while fossil evidence points to a Cenozoic radiation (the so-called 'rocks' versus 'clocks' controversy). Previous attempts to reconcile molecular and fossil evidence have proved controversial, [46] [47] but more recent estimates, using a more comprehensive sample of fossils and a new way of calibrating molecular clocks, showed that while modern birds originated early in the Late Cretaceous, a pulse of diversification in all major groups occurred around the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event. [48] Classification of bird orders Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Prum, R. O. et al. (2015) [45] with some clade names after Yuri, T. (2013). [49] The classification of birds is a contentious issue. Sibley and Ahlquist 's Phylogeny and Classification of Birds (1990) is a landmark work on the classification of birds, [51] although it is frequently debated and constantly revised. Most evidence seems to suggest the assignment of orders is accurate, [52] but scientists disagree about the relationships between the orders themselves; evidence from modern bird anatomy, fossils and DNA have all been brought to bear on the problem, but no strong consensus has emerged. More recently, new fossil and molecular evidence is providing an increasingly clear picture of the evolution of modern bird orders. [53] [45] Distribution The range of the house sparrow has expanded dramatically due to human activities. [54] Birds live and breed in most terrestrial habitats and on all seven continents, reaching their southern extreme in the snow petrel 's breeding colonies up to 440 kilometres (270 mi) inland in Antarctica. [55] The highest bird diversity occurs in tropical regions. It was earlier thought that this high diversity was the result of higher speciation rates in the tropics; however recent studies found higher speciation rates in the high latitudes that were offset by greater extinction rates than in the tropics. [56] Many species migrate annually over great distances and across oceans; several families of birds have adapted to life both on the world's oceans and in them, and some seabird species come ashore only to breed, [57] while some penguins have been recorded diving up to 300 metres (980 ft) deep. [58] Many bird species have established breeding populations in areas to which they have been introduced by humans. Some of these introductions have been deliberate; the ring-necked pheasant, for example, has been introduced around the world as a game bird. [59] Others have been accidental, such as the establishment of wild monk parakeets in several North American cities after their escape from captivity. [60] Some species, including cattle egret, [61] yellow-headed caracara [62] and galah, [63] have spread naturally far beyond their original ranges as agricultural practices created suitable new habitat. Anatomy and physiology External anatomy of a bird (example: yellow-wattled lapwing): 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Median coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Foot, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21 Throat, 22 Wattle, 23 Eyestripe Compared with other vertebrates, birds have a body plan that shows many unusual adaptations, mostly to facilitate flight. Skeletal system The skeleton consists of very lightweight bones. They have large air-filled cavities (called pneumatic cavities) which connect with the respiratory system. [64] The skull bones in adults are fused and do not show cranial sutures. [65] The orbits are large and separated by a bony septum. The spine has cervical, thoracic, lumbar and caudal regions with the number of cervical (neck) vertebrae highly variable and especially flexible, but movement is reduced in the anterior thoracic vertebrae and absent in the later vertebrae. [66] The last few are fused with the pelvis to form the synsacrum. [65] The ribs are flattened and the sternum is keeled for the attachment of flight muscles except in the flightless bird orders. The forelimbs are modified into wings. [67] The wings are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups that lost their wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. [68] Excretory system Like the reptiles, birds are primarily uricotelic, that is, their kidneys extract nitrogenous waste from their bloodstream and excrete it as uric acid, instead of urea or ammonia, through the ureters into the intestine. Birds do not have a urinary bladder or external urethral opening and (with exception of the ostrich) uric acid is excreted along with faeces as a semisolid waste. [69] [70] [71] However, birds such as hummingbirds can be facultatively ammonotelic, excreting most of the nitrogenous wastes as ammonia. [72] They also excrete creatine, rather than creatinine like mammals. [65] This material, as well as the output of the intestines, emerges from the bird's cloaca. [73] [74] The cloaca is a multi-purpose opening: waste is expelled through it, most birds mate by joining cloaca, and females lay eggs from it. In addition, many species of birds regurgitate pellets. [75] Males within Palaeognathae (with the exception of the kiwis), the Anseriformes (with the exception of screamers), and in rudimentary forms in Galliformes (but fully developed in Cracidae) possess a penis, which is never present in Neoaves. [76] [77] The length is thought to be related to sperm competition. [78] When not copulating, it is hidden within the proctodeum compartment within the cloaca, just inside the vent. The digestive system of birds is unique, with a crop for storage and a gizzard that contains swallowed stones for grinding food to compensate for the lack of teeth. [79] Most birds are highly adapted for rapid digestion to aid with flight. [80] Some migratory birds have adapted to use protein stored in many parts of their bodies, including protein from the intestines, as additional energy during migration. [81] Respiratory and circulatory systems Birds have one of the most complex respiratory systems of all animal groups. [65] Upon inhalation, 75% of the fresh air bypasses the lungs and flows directly into a posterior air sac which extends from the lungs and connects with air spaces in the bones and fills them with air. The other 25% of the air goes directly into the lungs. When the bird exhales, the used air flows out of the lungs and the stored fresh air from the posterior air sac is simultaneously forced into the lungs. Thus, a bird's lungs receive a constant supply of fresh air during both inhalation and exhalation. [82] Sound production is achieved using the syrinx, a muscular chamber incorporating multiple tympanic membranes which diverges from the lower end of the trachea; [83] the trachea being elongated in some species, increasing the volume of vocalisations and the perception of the bird's size. [84] In birds, the main arteries taking blood away from the heart originate from the right aortic arch (or pharyngeal arch), unlike in the mammals where the left aortic arch forms this part of the aorta. [65] The postcava receives blood from the limbs via the renal portal system. Unlike in mammals, the circulating red blood cells in birds retain their nucleus. [85] Heart type and features The avian circulatory system is driven by a four-chambered, myogenic heart contained in a fibrous pericardial sac. This pericardial sac is filled with a serous fluid for lubrication. [86] The heart itself is divided into a right and left half, each with an atrium and ventricle. The atrium and ventricles of each side are separated by atrioventricular valves which prevent back flow from one chamber to the next during contraction. Being myogenic, the heart's pace is maintained by pacemaker cells found in the sinoatrial node, located on the right atrium. The sinoatrial node uses calcium to cause a depolarising signal transduction pathway from the atrium through right and left atrioventricular bundle which communicates contraction to the ventricles. The avian heart also consists of muscular arches that are made up of thick bundles of muscular layers. Much like a mammalian heart, the avian heart is composed of endocardial, myocardial and epicardial layers. [86] The atrium walls tend to be thinner than the ventricle walls, due to the intense ventricular contraction used to pump oxygenated blood throughout the body. Avian hearts are generally larger than mammalian hearts when compared to body mass. This adaptation allows more blood to be pumped to meet the high metabolic need associated with flight. [87] Organisation Birds have a very efficient system for diffusing oxygen into the blood; birds have a ten times greater surface area to gas exchange volume than mammals. As a result, birds have more blood in their capillaries per unit of volume of lung than a mammal. [87] The arteries are composed of thick elastic muscles to withstand the pressure of the ventricular contractions, and become more rigid as they move away from the heart. Blood moves through the arteries, which undergo vasoconstriction, and into arterioles which act as a transportation system to distribute primarily oxygen as well as nutrients to all tissues of the body. [88] As the arterioles move away from the heart and into individual organs and tissues they are further divided to increase surface area and slow blood flow. Blood travels through the arterioles and moves into the capillaries where gas exchange can occur. Capillaries are organized into capillary beds in tissues; it is here that blood exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide waste. In the capillary beds, blood flow is slowed to allow maximum diffusion of oxygen into the tissues. Once the blood has become deoxygenated, it travels through venules then veins and back to the heart. Veins, unlike arteries, are thin and rigid as they do not need to withstand extreme pressure. As blood travels through the venules to the veins a funneling occurs called vasodilation bringing blood back to the heart. [88] Once the blood reaches the heart, it moves first into the right atrium, then the right ventricle to be pumped through the lungs for further gas exchange of carbon dioxide waste for oxygen. Oxygenated blood then flows from the lungs through the left atrium to the left ventricle where it is pumped out to the body. Nervous system The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size. [65] The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the flight-related functions, while the cerebellum coordinates movement and the cerebrum controls behaviour patterns, navigation, mating and nest building. Most birds have a poor sense of smell [89] with notable exceptions including kiwis, [90] New World vultures [91] and tubenoses. [92] The avian visual system is usually highly developed. Water birds have special flexible lenses, allowing accommodation for vision in air and water. [65] Some species also have dual fovea. Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones. [93] They also have double cones, likely to mediate achromatic vision. [94] Many birds show plumage patterns in ultraviolet that are invisible to the human eye; some birds whose sexes appear similar to the naked eye are distinguished by the presence of ultraviolet reflective patches on their feathers. Male blue tits have an ultraviolet reflective crown patch which is displayed in courtship by posturing and raising of their nape feathers. [95] Ultraviolet light is also used in foraging— kestrels have been shown to search for prey by detecting the UV reflective urine trail marks left on the ground by rodents. [96] With the exception of pigeons and a few other species, [97] the eyelids of birds are not used in blinking. Instead the eye is lubricated by the nictitating membrane, a third eyelid that moves horizontally. [98] The nictitating membrane also covers the eye and acts as a contact lens in many aquatic birds. [65] The bird retina has a fan shaped blood supply system called the pecten. [65] Most birds cannot move their eyes, although there are exceptions, such as the great cormorant. [99] Birds with eyes on the sides of their heads have a wide visual field, while birds with eyes on the front of their heads, such as owls, have binocular vision and can estimate the depth of field. [100] The avian ear lacks external pinnae but is covered by feathers, although in some birds, such as the Asio, Bubo and Otus owls, these feathers form tufts which resemble ears. The inner ear has a cochlea, but it is not spiral as in mammals. [101] Defence and intraspecific combat A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant stomach oil against an aggressor, [102] and some species of pitohuis from New Guinea have a powerful neurotoxin in their skin and feathers. [103] A lack of field observations limit our knowledge, but intraspecific conflicts are known to sometimes result in injury or death. [104] The screamers ( Anhimidae), some jacanas ( Jacana, Hydrophasianus), the spur-winged goose ( Plectropterus), the torrent duck ( Merganetta) and nine species of lapwing ( Vanellus) use a sharp spur on the wing as a weapon. The steamer ducks ( Tachyeres), geese and swans ( Anserinae), the solitaire ( Pezophaps), sheathbills ( Chionis), some guans ( Crax) and stone curlews ( Burhinus) use a bony knob on the alular metacarpal to punch and hammer opponents. [104] The jacanas Actophilornis and Irediparra have an expanded, blade-like radius. The extinct Xenicibis was unique in having an elongate forelimb and massive hand which likely functioned in combat or defence as a jointed club or flail. Swans, for instance, may strike with the bony spurs and bite when defending eggs or young. [104] Chromosomes Birds have two sexes: either female or male. The sex of birds is determined by the Z and W sex chromosomes, rather than by the X and Y chromosomes present in mammals. Male birds have two Z chromosomes (ZZ), and female birds have a W chromosome and a Z chromosome (WZ). [65] In nearly all species of birds, an individual's sex is determined at fertilisation. However, one recent study claimed to demonstrate temperature-dependent sex determination among the Australian brushturkey, for which higher temperatures during incubation resulted in a higher female-to-male sex ratio. [105] This, however, was later proven to not be the case. These birds do not exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination, but temperature-dependent sex mortality. [106] Feathers, plumage, and scales Feathers are a feature characteristic of birds (though also present in some dinosaurs not currently considered to be true birds). They facilitate flight, provide insulation that aids in thermoregulation, and are used in display, camouflage, and signalling. [65] There are several types of feathers, each serving its own set of purposes. Feathers are epidermal growths attached to the skin and arise only in specific tracts of skin called pterylae. The distribution pattern of these feather tracts (pterylosis) is used in taxonomy and systematics. The arrangement and appearance of feathers on the body, called plumage, may vary within species by age, social status, [107] and sex. [108] Plumage is regularly moulted; the standard plumage of a bird that has moulted after breeding is known as the " non-breeding " plumage, or—in the Humphrey–Parkes terminology —"basic" plumage; breeding plumages or variations of the basic plumage are known under the Humphrey–Parkes system as " alternate " plumages. [109] Moulting is annual in most species, although some may have two moults a year, and large birds of prey may moult only once every few years. Moulting patterns vary across species. In passerines, flight feathers are replaced one at a time with the innermost primary being the first. When the fifth of sixth primary is replaced, the outermost tertiaries begin to drop. After the innermost tertiaries are moulted, the secondaries starting from the innermost begin to drop and this proceeds to the outer feathers (centrifugal moult). The greater primary coverts are moulted in synchrony with the primary that they overlap. [110] A small number of species, such as ducks and geese, lose all of their flight feathers at once, temporarily becoming flightless. [111] As a general rule, the tail feathers are moulted and replaced starting with the innermost pair. [110] Centripetal moults of tail feathers are however seen in the Phasianidae. [112] The centrifugal moult is modified in the tail feathers of woodpeckers and treecreepers, in that it begins with the second innermost pair of feathers and finishes with the central pair of feathers so that the bird maintains a functional climbing tail. [110] [113] The general pattern seen in passerines is that the primaries are replaced outward, secondaries inward, and the tail from centre outward. [114] Before nesting, the females of most bird species gain a bare brood patch by losing feathers close to the belly. The skin there is well supplied with blood vessels and helps the bird in incubation. [115] Feathers require maintenance and birds preen or groom them daily, spending an average of around 9% of their daily time on this. [116] The bill is used to brush away foreign particles and to apply waxy secretions from the uropygial gland; these secretions protect the feathers' flexibility and act as an antimicrobial agent, inhibiting the growth of feather-degrading bacteria. [117] This may be supplemented with the secretions of formic acid from ants, which birds receive through a behaviour known as anting, to remove feather parasites. [118] The scales of birds are composed of the same keratin as beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and metatarsus, but may be found further up on the ankle in some birds. Most bird scales do not overlap significantly, except in the cases of kingfishers and woodpeckers. The scales of birds are thought to be homologous to those of reptiles and mammals. [119] Flight Most birds can fly, which distinguishes them from almost all other vertebrate classes. Flight is the primary means of locomotion for most bird species and is used for searching for food and for escaping from predators. Birds have various adaptations for flight, including a lightweight skeleton, two large flight muscles, the pectoralis (which accounts for 15% of the total mass of the bird) and the supracoracoideus, as well as a modified forelimb ( wing) that serves as an aerofoil. [65] Wing shape and size generally determine a bird's flight style and performance; many birds combine powered, flapping flight with less energy-intensive soaring flight. About 60 extant bird species are flightless, as were many extinct birds. [120] Flightlessness often arises in birds on isolated islands, probably due to limited resources and the absence of land predators. [121] Although flightless, penguins use similar musculature and movements to "fly" through the water, as do some flight-capable birds such as auks, shearwaters and dippers. [122] Behaviour Most birds are diurnal, but some birds, such as many species of owls and nightjars, are nocturnal or crepuscular (active during twilight hours), and many coastal waders feed when the tides are appropriate, by day or night. [123] Diet and feeding Feeding adaptations in beaks Birds' diets are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other birds. [65] Because birds have no teeth, their digestive system is adapted to process unmasticated food items that are swallowed whole. [124] Birds that employ many strategies to obtain food or feed on a variety of food items are called generalists, while others that concentrate time and effort on specific food items or have a single strategy to obtain food are considered specialists. [65] Birds' feeding strategies vary by species. Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in biological pest control programmes. [125] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400–500 million metric tons of arthropods annually. [126] Nectar feeders such as hummingbirds, sunbirds, lories, and lorikeets amongst others have specially adapted brushy tongues and in many cases bills designed to fit co-adapted flowers. [127] Kiwis and shorebirds with long bills probe for invertebrates; shorebirds' varied bill lengths and feeding methods result in the separation of ecological niches. [65] [128] Loons, diving ducks, penguins and auks pursue their prey underwater, using their wings or feet for propulsion, [57] while aerial predators such as sulids, kingfishers and terns plunge dive after their prey. Flamingos, three species of prion, and some ducks are filter feeders. [129] [130] Geese and dabbling ducks are primarily grazers. Some species, including frigatebirds, gulls, [131] and skuas, [132] engage in kleptoparasitism, stealing food items from other birds. Kleptoparasitism is thought to be a supplement to food obtained by hunting, rather than a significant part of any species' diet; a study of great frigatebirds stealing from masked boobies estimated that the frigatebirds stole at most 40% of their food and on average stole only 5%. [133] Other birds are scavengers; some of these, like vultures, are specialised carrion eaters, while others, like gulls, corvids, or other birds of prey, are opportunists. [134] Water and drinking Water is needed by many birds although their mode of excretion and lack of sweat glands reduces the physiological demands. [135] Some desert birds can obtain their water needs entirely from moisture in their food. They may also have other adaptations such as allowing their body temperature to rise, saving on moisture loss from evaporative cooling or panting. [136] Seabirds can drink seawater and have salt glands inside the head that eliminate excess salt out of the nostrils. [137] Most birds scoop water in their beaks and raise their head to let water run down the throat. Some species, especially of arid zones, belonging to the pigeon, finch, mousebird, button-quail and bustard families are capable of sucking up water without the need to tilt back their heads. [138] Some desert birds depend on water sources and sandgrouse are particularly well known for their daily congregations at waterholes. Nesting sandgrouse and many plovers carry water to their young by wetting their belly feathers. [139] Some birds carry water for chicks at the nest in their crop or regurgitate it along with food. The pigeon family, flamingos and penguins have adaptations to produce a nutritive fluid called crop milk that they provide to their chicks. [140] Feather care Feathers being critical to the survival of a bird, require maintenance. Apart from physical wear and tear, feathers face the onslaught of fungi, ectoparasitic feather mites and bird lice. [141] The physical condition of feathers are maintained by preening often with the application of secretions from the preen gland. Birds also bathe in water or dust themselves. While some birds dip into shallow water, more aerial species may make aerial dips into water and arboreal species often make use of dew or rain that collect on leaves. Birds of arid regions make use of loose soil to dust-bathe. A behaviour termed as anting in which the bird encourages ants to run through their plumage is also thought to help them reduce the ectoparasite load in feathers. Many species will spread out their wings and expose them to direct sunlight and this too is thought to help in reducing fungal and ectoparasitic activity that may lead to feather damage. [142] [143] Migration Many bird species migrate to take advantage of global differences of seasonal temperatures, therefore optimising availability of food sources and breeding habitat. These migrations vary among the different groups. Many landbirds, shorebirds, and waterbirds undertake annual long distance migrations, usually triggered by the length of daylight as well as weather conditions. These birds are characterised by a breeding season spent in the temperate or polar regions and a non-breeding season in the tropical regions or opposite hemisphere. Before migration, birds substantially increase body fats and reserves and reduce the size of some of their organs. [81] [144] Migration is highly demanding energetically, particularly as birds need to cross deserts and oceans without refuelling. Landbirds have a flight range of around 2, 500 km (1, 600 mi) and shorebirds can fly up to 4, 000 km (2, 500 mi), [145] although the bar-tailed godwit is capable of non-stop flights of up to 10, 200 km (6, 300 mi). [146] Seabirds also undertake long migrations, the longest annual migration being those of sooty shearwaters, which nest in New Zealand and Chile and spend the northern summer feeding in the North Pacific off Japan, Alaska and California, an annual round trip of 64, 000 km (39, 800 mi). [147] Other seabirds disperse after breeding, travelling widely but having no set migration route. Albatrosses nesting in the Southern Ocean often undertake circumpolar trips between breeding seasons. [148] The routes of satellite-tagged bar-tailed godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10, 200 km (6, 300 mi). Some bird species undertake shorter migrations, travelling only as far as is required to avoid bad weather or obtain food. Irruptive species such as the boreal finches are one such group and can commonly be found at a location in one year and absent the next. This type of migration is normally associated with food availability. [149] Species may also travel shorter distances over part of their range, with individuals from higher latitudes travelling into the existing range of conspecifics; others undertake partial migrations, where only a fraction of the population, usually females and subdominant males, migrates. [150] Partial migration can form a large percentage of the migration behaviour of birds in some regions; in Australia, surveys found that 44% of non-passerine birds and 32% of passerines were partially migratory. [151] Altitudinal migration is a form of short distance migration in which birds spend the breeding season at higher altitudes and move to lower ones during suboptimal conditions. It is most often triggered by temperature changes and usually occurs when the normal territories also become inhospitable due to lack of food. [152] Some species may also be nomadic, holding no fixed territory and moving according to weather and food availability. Parrots as a family are overwhelmingly neither migratory nor sedentary but considered to either be dispersive, irruptive, nomadic or undertake small and irregular migrations. [153] The ability of birds to return to precise locations across vast distances has been known for some time; in an experiment conducted in the 1950s, a Manx shearwater released in Boston in the United States returned to its colony in Skomer, in Wales within 13 days, a distance of 5, 150 km (3, 200 mi). [154] Birds navigate during migration using a variety of methods. For diurnal migrants, the sun is used to navigate by day, and a stellar compass is used at night. Birds that use the sun compensate for the changing position of the sun during the day by the use of an internal clock. [65] Orientation with the stellar compass depends on the position of the constellations surrounding Polaris. [155] These are backed up in some species by their ability to sense the Earth's geomagnetism through specialised photoreceptors. [156] Communication The startling display of the sunbittern mimics a large predator. Birds communicate using primarily visual and auditory signals. Signals can be interspecific (between species) and intraspecific (within species). Birds sometimes use plumage to assess and assert social dominance, [157] to display breeding condition in sexually selected species, or to make threatening displays, as in the sunbittern 's mimicry of a large predator to ward off hawks and protect young chicks. [158] Variation in plumage also allows for the identification of birds, particularly between species. Visual communication among birds may also involve ritualised displays, which have developed from non-signalling actions such as preening, the adjustments of feather position, pecking, or other behaviour. These displays may signal aggression or submission or may contribute to the formation of pair-bonds. [65] The most elaborate displays occur during courtship, where "dances" are often formed from complex combinations of many possible component movements; [159] males' breeding success may depend on the quality of such displays. [160] Bird calls and songs, which are produced in the syrinx, are the major means by which birds communicate with sound. This communication can be very complex; some species can operate the two sides of the syrinx independently, allowing the simultaneous production of two different songs. [83] Calls are used for a variety of purposes, including mate attraction, [65] evaluation of potential mates, [161] bond formation, the claiming and maintenance of territories, [65] the identification of other individuals (such as when parents look for chicks in colonies or when mates reunite at the start of breeding season), [162] and the warning of other birds of potential predators, sometimes with specific information about the nature of the threat. [163] Some birds also use mechanical sounds for auditory communication. The Coenocorypha snipes of New Zealand drive air through their feathers, [164] woodpeckers drum for long distance communication, [165] and palm cockatoos use tools to drum. [166] Flocking and other associations Red-billed queleas, the most numerous species of bird, [167] form enormous flocks—sometimes tens of thousands strong. While some birds are essentially territorial or live in small family groups, other birds may form large flocks. The principal benefits of flocking are safety in numbers and increased foraging efficiency. [65] Defence against predators is particularly important in closed habitats like forests, where ambush predation is common and multiple eyes can provide a valuable early warning system. This has led to the development of many mixed-species feeding flocks, which are usually composed of small numbers of many species; these flocks provide safety in numbers but increase potential competition for resources. [168] Costs of flocking include bullying of socially subordinate birds by more dominant birds and the reduction of feeding efficiency in certain cases. [169] Birds sometimes also form associations with non-avian species. Plunge-diving seabirds associate with dolphins and tuna, which push shoaling fish towards the surface. [170] Hornbills have a mutualistic relationship with dwarf mongooses, in which they forage together and warn each other of nearby birds of prey and other predators. [171] Resting and roosting Many birds, like this American flamingo, tuck their head into their back when sleeping The high metabolic rates of birds during the active part of the day is supplemented by rest at other times. Sleeping birds often use a type of sleep known as vigilant sleep, where periods of rest are interspersed with quick eye-opening "peeks", allowing them to be sensitive to disturbances and enable rapid escape from threats. [172] Swifts are believed to be able to sleep in flight and radar observations suggest that they orient themselves to face the wind in their roosting flight. [173] It has been suggested that there may be certain kinds of sleep which are possible even when in flight. [174] Some birds have also demonstrated the capacity to fall into slow-wave sleep one hemisphere of the brain at a time. The birds tend to exercise this ability depending upon its position relative to the outside of the flock. This may allow the eye opposite the sleeping hemisphere to remain vigilant for predators by viewing the outer margins of the flock. This adaptation is also known from marine mammals. [175] Communal roosting is common because it lowers the loss of body heat and decreases the risks associated with predators. [176] Roosting sites are often chosen with regard to thermoregulation and safety. [177] Many sleeping birds bend their heads over their backs and tuck their bills in their back feathers, although others place their beaks among their breast feathers. Many birds rest on one leg, while some may pull up their legs into their feathers, especially in cold weather. Perching birds have a tendon locking mechanism that helps them hold on to the perch when they are asleep. Many ground birds, such as quails and pheasants, roost in trees. A few parrots of the genus Loriculus roost hanging upside down. [178] Some hummingbirds go into a nightly state of torpor accompanied with a reduction of their metabolic rates. [179] This physiological adaptation shows in nearly a hundred other species, including owlet-nightjars, nightjars, and woodswallows. One species, the common poorwill, even enters a state of hibernation. [180] Birds do not have sweat glands, but they may cool themselves by moving to shade, standing in water, panting, increasing their surface area, fluttering their throat or by using special behaviours like urohidrosis to cool themselves. Breeding Ninety-five per cent of bird species are socially monogamous. These species pair for at least the length of the breeding season or—in some cases—for several years or until the death of one mate. [182] Monogamy allows for both paternal care and biparental care, which is especially important for species in which females require males' assistance for successful brood-rearing. [183] Among many socially monogamous species, extra-pair copulation (infidelity) is common. [184] Such behaviour typically occurs between dominant males and females paired with subordinate males, but may also be the result of forced copulation in ducks and other anatids. [185] Female birds have sperm storage mechanisms that allow sperm from males to remain viable long after copulation, a hundred days in some species. [186] Sperm from multiple males may compete through this mechanism. For females, possible benefits of extra-pair copulation include getting better genes for her offspring and insuring against the possibility of infertility in her mate. [187] Males of species that engage in extra-pair copulations will closely guard their mates to ensure the parentage of the offspring that they raise. [188] Other mating systems, including polygyny, polyandry, polygamy, polygynandry, and promiscuity, also occur. [65] Polygamous breeding systems arise when females are able to raise broods without the help of males. [65] Some species may use more than one system depending on the circumstances. Breeding usually involves some form of courtship display, typically performed by the male. [189] Most displays are rather simple and involve some type of song. Some displays, however, are quite elaborate. Depending on the species, these may include wing or tail drumming, dancing, aerial flights, or communal lekking. Females are generally the ones that drive partner selection, [190] although in the polyandrous phalaropes, this is reversed: plainer males choose brightly coloured females. [191] Courtship feeding, billing and allopreening are commonly performed between partners, generally after the birds have paired and mated. [80] Homosexual behaviour has been observed in males or females in numerous species of birds, including copulation, pair-bonding, and joint parenting of chicks. [192] Territories, nesting and incubation Many birds actively defend a territory from others of the same species during the breeding season; maintenance of territories protects the food source for their chicks. Species that are unable to defend feeding territories, such as seabirds and swifts, often breed in colonies instead; this is thought to offer protection from predators. Colonial breeders defend small nesting sites, and competition between and within species for nesting sites can be intense. [193] All birds lay amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate. [65] Hole and burrow nesting species tend to lay white or pale eggs, while open nesters lay camouflaged eggs. There are many exceptions to this pattern, however; the ground-nesting nightjars have pale eggs, and camouflage is instead provided by their plumage. Species that are victims of brood parasites have varying egg colours to improve the chances of spotting a parasite's egg, which forces female parasites to match their eggs to those of their hosts. [194] Bird eggs are usually laid in a nest. Most species create somewhat elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes, mounds, or burrows. [195] Some bird nests, however, are extremely primitive; albatross nests are no more than a scrape on the ground. Most birds build nests in sheltered, hidden areas to avoid predation, but large or colonial birds—which are more capable of defence—may build more open nests. During nest construction, some species seek out plant matter from plants with parasite-reducing toxins to improve chick survival, [196] and feathers are often used for nest insulation. [195] Some bird species have no nests; the cliff-nesting common guillemot lays its eggs on bare rock, and male emperor penguins keep eggs between their body and feet. The absence of nests is especially prevalent in ground-nesting species where the newly hatched young are precocial. Incubation, which optimises temperature for chick development, usually begins after the last egg has been laid. [65] In monogamous species incubation duties are often shared, whereas in polygamous species one parent is wholly responsible for incubation. Warmth from parents passes to the eggs through brood patches, areas of bare skin on the abdomen or breast of the incubating birds. Incubation can be an energetically demanding process; adult albatrosses, for instance, lose as much as 83 grams (2. 9 oz) of body weight per day of incubation. [197] The warmth for the incubation of the eggs of megapodes comes from the sun, decaying vegetation or volcanic sources. [198] Incubation periods range from 10 days (in woodpeckers, cuckoos and passerine birds) to over 80 days (in albatrosses and kiwis). [65] The diversity of characteristics of birds is great, sometimes even in closely related species. Several avian characteristics are compared in the table below. [199] [200] Species Adult weight (grams) Incubation (days) Clutches (per year) Clutch size Ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris) 3 13 2. 0 2 House sparrow ( Passer domesticus) 25 11 4. 5 5 Greater roadrunner ( Geococcyx californianus) 376 20 1. 5 4 Turkey vulture ( Cathartes aura) 2, 200 39 1. 0 Laysan albatross ( Diomedea immutabilis) 3, 150 64 1 Magellanic penguin ( Spheniscus magellanicus) 4, 000 40 Golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) 4, 800 Wild turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) 6, 050 28 Parental care and fledging At the time of their hatching, chicks range in development from helpless to independent, depending on their species. Helpless chicks are termed altricial, and tend to be born small, blind, immobile and naked; chicks that are mobile and feathered upon hatching are termed precocial. Altricial chicks need help thermoregulating and must be brooded for longer than precocial chicks. The young of many bird species do not precisely fit into either the precocial or altricial category, having some aspects of each and thus fall somewhere on an "altricial-precocial spectrum". [201] Chicks at neither extreme but favoring one or the other may be termed semi-precocial [202] or semi-altricial. [203] The length and nature of parental care varies widely amongst different orders and species. At one extreme, parental care in megapodes ends at hatching; the newly hatched chick digs itself out of the nest mound without parental assistance and can fend for itself immediately. [204] At the other extreme, many seabirds have extended periods of parental care, the longest being that of the great frigatebird, whose chicks take up to six months to fledge and are fed by the parents for up to an additional 14 months. [205] The chick guard stage describes the period of breeding during which one of the adult birds is permanently present at the nest after chicks have hatched. The main purpose of the guard stage is to aid offspring to thermoregulate and protect them from predation. [206] In some species, both parents care for nestlings and fledglings; in others, such care is the responsibility of only one sex. In some species, other members of the same species—usually close relatives of the breeding pair, such as offspring from previous broods—will help with the raising of the young. [207] Such alloparenting is particularly common among the Corvida, which includes such birds as the true crows, Australian magpie and fairy-wrens, [208] but has been observed in species as different as the rifleman and red kite. Among most groups of animals, male parental care is rare. In birds, however, it is quite common—more so than in any other vertebrate class. [65] Although territory and nest site defence, incubation, and chick feeding are often shared tasks, there is sometimes a division of labour in which one mate undertakes all or most of a particular duty. [209] The point at which chicks fledge varies dramatically. The chicks of the Synthliboramphus murrelets, like the ancient murrelet, leave the nest the night after they hatch, following their parents out to sea, where they are raised away from terrestrial predators. [210] Some other species, such as ducks, move their chicks away from the nest at an early age. In most species, chicks leave the nest just before, or soon after, they are able to fly. The amount of parental care after fledging varies; albatross chicks leave the nest on their own and receive no further help, while other species continue some supplementary feeding after fledging. [211] Chicks may also follow their parents during their first migration. [212] Brood parasites Brood parasitism, in which an egg-layer leaves her eggs with another individual's brood, is more common among birds than any other type of organism. [213] After a parasitic bird lays her eggs in another bird's nest, they are often accepted and raised by the host at the expense of the host's own brood. Brood parasites may be either obligate brood parasites, which must lay their eggs in the nests of other species because they are incapable of raising their own young, or non-obligate brood parasites, which sometimes lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics to increase their reproductive output even though they could have raised their own young. [214] One hundred bird species, including honeyguides, icterids, and ducks, are obligate parasites, though the most famous are the cuckoos. [213] Some brood parasites are adapted to hatch before their host's young, which allows them to destroy the host's eggs by pushing them out of the nest or to kill the host's chicks; this ensures that all food brought to the nest will be fed to the parasitic chicks. [215] Sexual selection Birds have evolved a variety of mating behaviours, with the peacock tail being perhaps the most famous example of sexual selection and the Fisherian runaway. Commonly occurring sexual dimorphisms such as size and colour differences are energetically costly attributes that signal competitive breeding situations. [216] Many types of avian sexual selection have been identified; intersexual selection, also known as female choice; and intrasexual competition, where individuals of the more abundant sex compete with each other for the privilege to mate. Sexually selected traits often evolve to become more pronounced in competitive breeding situations until the trait begins to limit the individual's fitness. Conflicts between an individual fitness and signalling adaptations ensure that sexually selected ornaments such as plumage coloration and courtship behaviour are "honest" traits. Signals must be costly to ensure that only good-quality individuals can present these exaggerated sexual ornaments and behaviours. [217] Inbreeding depression Inbreeding causes early death ( inbreeding depression) in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. [218] Embryo survival (that is, hatching success of fertile eggs) was significantly lower for sib-sib mating pairs than for unrelated pairs. Darwin's finch Geospiza scandens experiences inbreeding depression (reduced survival of offspring) and the magnitude of this effect is influenced by environmental conditions such as low food availability. [219] Inbreeding avoidance Incestuous matings by the purple-crowned fairy wren Malurus coronatus result in severe fitness costs due to inbreeding depression (greater than 30% reduction in hatchability of eggs). [220] Females paired with related males may undertake extra pair matings (see Promiscuity#Other animals for 90% frequency in avian species) that can reduce the negative effects of inbreeding. However, there are ecological and demographic constraints on extra pair matings. Nevertheless, 43% of broods produced by incestuously paired females contained extra pair young. [220] Inbreeding depression occurs in the great tit ( Parus major) when the offspring produced as a result of a mating between close relatives show reduced fitness. In natural populations of Parus major, inbreeding is avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative. [221] Southern pied babblers Turdoides bicolor appear to avoid inbreeding in two ways. The first is through dispersal, and the second is by avoiding familiar group members as mates. [222] Although both males and females disperse locally, they move outside the range where genetically related individuals are likely to be encountered. Within their group, individuals only acquire breeding positions when the opposite-sex breeder is unrelated. Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring, usually males, delay dispersal from their natal group in order to remain with the family to help rear younger kin. [223] Female offspring rarely stay at home, dispersing over distances that allow them to breed independently, or to join unrelated groups. In general, inbreeding is avoided because it leads to a reduction in progeny fitness ( inbreeding depression) due largely to the homozygous expression of deleterious recessive alleles. [224] Cross-fertilisation between unrelated individuals ordinarily leads to the masking of deleterious recessive alleles in progeny. [225] [226] Ecology Birds occupy a wide range of ecological positions. [167] While some birds are generalists, others are highly specialised in their habitat or food requirements. Even within a single habitat, such as a forest, the niches occupied by different species of birds vary, with some species feeding in the forest canopy, others beneath the canopy, and still others on the forest floor. Forest birds may be insectivores, frugivores, and nectarivores. Aquatic birds generally feed by fishing, plant eating, and piracy or kleptoparasitism. Birds of prey specialise in hunting mammals or other birds, while vultures are specialised scavengers. Avivores are animals that are specialised at preying on birds. Some nectar-feeding birds are important pollinators, and many frugivores play a key role in seed dispersal. [227] Plants and pollinating birds often coevolve, [228] and in some cases a flower's primary pollinator is the only species capable of reaching its nectar. [229] Birds are often important to island ecology. Birds have frequently reached islands that mammals have not; on those islands, birds may fulfil ecological roles typically played by larger animals. For example, in New Zealand nine species of moa were important browsers, as are the kererū and kokako today. [227] Today the plants of New Zealand retain the defensive adaptations evolved to protect them from the extinct moa. [230] Nesting seabirds may also affect the ecology of islands and surrounding seas, principally through the concentration of large quantities of guano, which may enrich the local soil [231] and the surrounding seas. [232] A wide variety of avian ecology field methods, including counts, nest monitoring, and capturing and marking, are used for researching avian ecology. Relationship with humans Since birds are highly visible and common animals, humans have had a relationship with them since the dawn of man. [233] Sometimes, these relationships are mutualistic, like the cooperative honey-gathering among honeyguides and African peoples such as the Borana. [234] Other times, they may be commensal, as when species such as the house sparrow [235] have benefited from human activities. Several bird species have become commercially significant agricultural pests, [236] and some pose an aviation hazard. [237] Human activities can also be detrimental, and have threatened numerous bird species with extinction ( hunting, avian lead poisoning, pesticides, roadkill, wind turbine kills [238] and predation by pet cats and dogs are common causes of death for birds). [239] Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis), avian influenza (bird flu), giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis over long distances. Some of these are zoonotic diseases that can also be transmitted to humans. [240] Economic importance The use of cormorants by Asian fishermen is in steep decline but survives in some areas as a tourist attraction. Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called poultry, are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in 2003, 76 million tons of poultry and 61 million tons of eggs were produced worldwide. [241] Chickens account for much of human poultry consumption, though domesticated turkeys, ducks, and geese are also relatively common. Many species of birds are also hunted for meat. Bird hunting is primarily a recreational activity except in extremely undeveloped areas. The most important birds hunted in North and South America are waterfowl; other widely hunted birds include pheasants, wild turkeys, quail, doves, partridge, grouse, snipe, and woodcock. [242] Muttonbirding is also popular in Australia and New Zealand. [243] Although some hunting, such as that of muttonbirds, may be sustainable, hunting has led to the extinction or endangerment of dozens of species. [244] Other commercially valuable products from birds include feathers (especially the down of geese and ducks), which are used as insulation in clothing and bedding, and seabird faeces ( guano), which is a valuable source of phosphorus and nitrogen. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Guano War, was fought in part over the control of guano deposits. [245] Birds have been domesticated by humans both as pets and for practical purposes. Colourful birds, such as parrots and mynas, are bred in captivity or kept as pets, a practice that has led to the illegal trafficking of some endangered species. [246] Falcons and cormorants have long been used for hunting and fishing, respectively. Messenger pigeons, used since at least 1 AD, remained important as recently as World War II. Today, such activities are more common either as hobbies, for entertainment and tourism, [247] or for sports such as pigeon racing. Amateur bird enthusiasts (called birdwatchers, twitchers or, more commonly, birders) number in the millions. [248] Many homeowners erect bird feeders near their homes to attract various species. Bird feeding has grown into a multimillion-dollar industry; for example, an estimated 75% of households in Britain provide food for birds at some point during the winter. [249] In religion and mythology Birds play prominent and diverse roles in religion and mythology. In religion, birds may serve as either messengers or priests and leaders for a deity, such as in the Cult of Makemake, in which the Tangata manu of Easter Island served as chiefs [250] or as attendants, as in the case of Hugin and Munin, the two common ravens who whispered news into the ears of the Norse god Odin. In several civilisations of ancient Italy, particularly Etruscan and Roman religion, priests were involved in augury, or interpreting the words of birds while the "auspex" (from which the word "auspicious" is derived) watched their activities to foretell events. [251] They may also serve as religious symbols, as when Jonah ( Hebrew: יוֹנָה ‎, dove) embodied the fright, passivity, mourning, and beauty traditionally associated with doves. [252] Birds have themselves been deified, as in the case of the common peacock, which is perceived as Mother Earth by the Dravidians of India. [253] In the ancient world, doves were used as symbols of the Mesopotamian goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar), [254] [255] the Canaanite mother goddess Asherah, [254] [255] [256] and the Greek goddess Aphrodite. [257] [258] [254] [255] [259] In ancient Greece, Athena, the goddess of wisdom and patron deity of the city of Athens, had a little owl as her symbol. [260] [261] [262] In religious images preserved from the Inca and Tiwanaku empires, birds are depicted in the process of transgressing boundaries between earthly and underground spiritual realms. [263] Indigenous peoples of the central Andes maintain legends of birds passing to and from metaphysical worlds. [263] In culture and folklore Birds have featured in culture and art since prehistoric times, when they were represented in early cave paintings. [264] Some birds have been perceived as monsters, including the mythological Roc and the Māori 's legendary Pouākai, a giant bird capable of snatching humans. [265] Birds were later used as symbols of power, as in the magnificent Peacock Throne of the Mughal and Persian emperors. [266] With the advent of scientific interest in birds, many paintings of birds were commissioned for books. Among the most famous of these bird artists was John James Audubon, whose paintings of North American birds were a great commercial success in Europe and who later lent his name to the National Audubon Society. [267] Birds are also important figures in poetry; for example, Homer incorporated nightingales into his Odyssey, and Catullus used a sparrow as an erotic symbol in his Catullus 2. [268] The relationship between an albatross and a sailor is the central theme of Samuel Taylor Coleridge 's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, which led to the use of the term as a metaphor for a 'burden'. [269] Other English metaphors derive from birds; vulture funds and vulture investors, for instance, take their name from the scavenging vulture. [270] Perceptions of bird species vary across cultures. Owls are associated with bad luck, witchcraft, and death in parts of Africa, [271] but are regarded as wise across much of Europe. [272] Hoopoes were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt and symbols of virtue in Persia, but were thought of as thieves across much of Europe and harbingers of war in Scandinavia. [273] In heraldry, birds, especially eagles, often appear in coats of arms. [274] In music In music, birdsong has influenced composers and musicians in several ways: they can be inspired by birdsong; they can intentionally imitate bird song in a composition, as Vivaldi, Messiaen, and Beethoven did, along with many later composers; they can incorporate recordings of birds into their works, as Ottorino Respighi first did; or like Beatrice Harrison and David Rothenberg, they can duet with birds. [275] [276] [277] [278] Conservation The California condor once numbered only 22 birds, but conservation measures have raised that to over 400 today. Although human activities have allowed the expansion of a few species, such as the barn swallow and European starling, they have caused population decreases or extinction in many other species. Over a hundred bird species have gone extinct in historical times, [279] although the most dramatic human-caused avian extinctions, eradicating an estimated 750–1800 species, occurred during the human colonisation of Melanesian, Polynesian, and Micronesian islands. [280] Many bird populations are declining worldwide, with 1, 227 species listed as threatened by BirdLife International and the IUCN in 2009. [281] [282] The most commonly cited human threat to birds is habitat loss. [283] Other threats include overhunting, accidental mortality due to collisions with buildings or vehicles, long-line fishing bycatch, [284] pollution (including oil spills and pesticide use), [285] competition and predation from nonnative invasive species, [286] and climate change. 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Advances in Genetics. 24: 323–370. 1016/s0065-2660(08)60012-7. ISBN 9780120176243. PMID 3324702. ^ Michod, R. "Eros and Evolution: A Natural Philosophy of Sex" Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts. ISBN 978-0201442328 ^ a b Clout, M; Hay, J (1989). "The importance of birds as browsers, pollinators and seed dispersers in New Zealand forests" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 12: 27–33. ^ Gary Stiles, F. (1981). "Geographical Aspects of Bird-Flower Coevolution, with Particular Reference to Central America". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 68 (2): 323–351. 2307/2398801. JSTOR 2398801. ^ Temeles, E; Linhart, Y; Masonjones, M; Masonjones, H (2002). "The Role of Flower Width in Hummingbird Bill Length–Flower Length Relationships" (PDF). Biotropica. 34 (1): 68–80. 1744-7429. tb00243. x. ^ Bond, William J. ; Lee, William G. ; Craine, Joseph M. "Plant structural defences against browsing birds: a legacy of New Zealand's extinct moas". 104 (3): 500–508. 0030-1299. 12720. x. ^ Wainright, S; Haney, J; Kerr, C; Golovkin, A; Flint, M (1998). "Utilization of nitrogen derived from seabird guano by terrestrial and marine plants at St. Paul, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska". Marine Ecology. 131 (1): 63–71. 1007/s002270050297. ^ Bosman, A; Hockey, A (1986). "Seabird guano as a determinant of rocky intertidal community structure". 32: 247–257. Bibcode: 1986MEPS... 32.. 247B. 3354/meps032247. ^ Bonney, Rick; Rohrbaugh, Jr., Ronald (2004). Handbook of Bird Biology (Second ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-938027-62-X. ^ Dean, W. ; Siegfried, W. ROY; MacDonald, I. (1990). "The Fallacy, Fact, and Fate of Guiding Behavior in the Greater Honeyguide". Conservation Biology. 4: 99–101. 1523-1739. 1990. tb00272. x. ^ Singer, R. ; Yom-Tov, Y. (1988). "The Breeding Biology of the House Sparrow Passer domesticus in Israel". Ornis Scandinavica. 19 (2): 139–144. 2307/3676463. JSTOR 3676463. ^ Richard Dolbeer (1990). "Ornithology and integrated pest management: Red-winged blackbirds Agleaius phoeniceus and corn". 132 (2): 309–322. tb01048. x. ^ Dolbeer, R; Belant, J; Sillings, J (1993). "Shooting Gulls Reduces Strikes with Aircraft at John F. Kennedy International Airport". Wildlife Society Bulletin. 21: 442–450. ^ "Will Wind Turbines Ever Be Safe for Birds? ", by Emma Bryce, Audubon, US National Audubon Society, 16 March 2016. Accessed 19 March 2017. ^ Zimmer, Carl (19 September 2019). "Birds Are Vanishing From North America". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 September 2019. ^ Reed, K. ; Meece, J. ; Henkel, J. ; Shukla, S. "Birds, Migration and Emerging Zoonoses: West Nile Virus, Lyme Disease, Influenza A and Enteropathogens". Clinical Medicine & Research. 1 (1): 5–12. 3121/cmr. 5. PMC 1069015. PMID 15931279. ^ Brown, Lester (2005). "3: Moving Up the Food Chain Efficiently. ". Outgrowing the Earth: The Food Security Challenge in an Age of Falling Water Tables and Rising Temperatures. earthscan. ISBN 978-1-84407-185-2. ^ Simeone, A. ; Navarro, X. "Human exploitation of seabirds in coastal southern Chile during the mid-Holocene". Chil. Hist. 75 (2): 423–431. 4067/S0716-078X2002000200012. ^ Hamilton, S. "How precise and accurate are data obtained using. an infra-red scope on burrow-nesting sooty shearwaters Puffinus griseus? " (PDF). 28 (1): 1–6. ^ Keane, Aidan; Brooke, L. ; McGowan, P. "Correlates of extinction risk and hunting pressure in gamebirds (Galliformes)". Biological Conservation. 126 (2): 216–233. 1016/. ^ "The Guano War of 1865–1866". World History at KMLA. Retrieved 18 December 2007. ^ Cooney, R. ; Jepson, P (2006). "The international wild bird trade: what's wrong with blanket bans? ". Oryx. 40 (1): 18–23. 1017/S0030605306000056. ^ Manzi, M; Coomes, O. "Cormorant fishing in Southwestern China: a Traditional Fishery under Siege. (Geographical Field Note)". Geographical Review. 92 (4): 597–603. 2307/4140937. JSTOR 4140937. ^ Pullis La Rouche, G. Birding in the United States: a demographic and economic analysis. Waterbirds around the world. Eds. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh. 841–846. Archived 4 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine, PDF ^ Chamberlain, D. ; Vickery, J. ; Glue, D. ; Robinson, R. ; Conway, G. ; Woodburn, R. ; Cannon, A. "Annual and seasonal trends in the use of garden feeders by birds in winter". 147 (3): 563–575. 1474-919x. 00430. x. ^ Routledge, S. ; Routledge, K. (1917). "The Bird Cult of Easter Island". Folklore. 28 (4): 337–355. 1080/0015587X. 1917. 9719006. ^ Ingersoll, Ernest (1923)., "Birds in legend, fable and folklore". Longmans, Green and co. 214 ^ Hauser, A. "Jonah: In Pursuit of the Dove". Journal of Biblical Literature. 104 (1): 21–37. 2307/3260591. JSTOR 3260591. ^ Thankappan Nair, P. (1974). "The Peacock Cult in Asia". Asian Folklore Studies. 33 (2): 93–170. 2307/1177550. JSTOR 1177550. ^ a b c Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer (1990). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. VI. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0-8028-2330-0. ^ a b c Lewis, Sian; Llewellyn-Jones, Lloyd (2018). The Culture of Animals in Antiquity: A Sourcebook with Commentaries. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. p. 335. ISBN 978-1-315-20160-3. Dorothy D. Resig, The Enduring Symbolism of Doves, From Ancient Icon to Biblical Mainstay" Archived 31 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine, BAR Magazine. (9 February 2013). Retrieved on 5 March 2013. ^ Cyrino, Monica S. Aphrodite. Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World. pp. 120–123. ISBN 978-0-415-77523-6. ^ Tinkle, Theresa (1996). Medieval Venuses and Cupids: Sexuality, Hermeneutics, and English Poetry. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0804725156. ^ Simon, Erika (1983). Festivals of Attica: An Archaeological Companion. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-09184-8. ^ Deacy, Susan; Villing, Alexandra (2001). Athena in the Classical World. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. ISBN 978-9004121423. ^ Deacy, Susan (2008). Athena. London and New York City: Routledge. pp. 34–37, 74–75. ISBN 978-0-415-30066-7. ^ Nilsson, Martin Persson (1950). The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and Its Survival in Greek Religion (second ed. New York City, New York: Biblo & Tannen. pp. 491–496. ISBN 0-8196-0273-6. ^ a b Smith, S. "Generative landscapes: the step mountain motif in Tiwanaku iconography" (Automatic PDF download). Ancient America. 12: 1–69. ^ Meighan, C. "Prehistoric Rock Paintings in Baja California". American Antiquity. 31 (3): 372–392. 2307/2694739. JSTOR 2694739. ^ Tennyson A, Martinson P (2006). Extinct Birds of New Zealand Te Papa Press, Wellington ISBN 978-0-909010-21-8 ^ Clarke, CP (1908). "A Pedestal of the Platform of the Peacock Throne". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 3 (10): 182–183. 2307/3252550. JSTOR 3252550. ^ Boime, Albert (1999). "John James Audubon: a birdwatcher's fanciful flights". Art History. 22 (5): 728–755. 1111/1467-8365. 00184. ^ Chandler, A. (1934). "The Nightingale in Greek and Latin Poetry". The Classical Journal. 30 (2): 78–84. JSTOR 3289944. ^ Lasky, E. (March 1992). "A Modern Day Albatross: The Valdez and Some of Life's Other Spills". The English Journal. 81 (3): 44–46. 2307/820195. JSTOR 820195. ^ Carson, A. (1998). "Vulture Investors, Predators of the 90s: An Ethical Examination". Journal of Business Ethics. 17 (5): 543–555. 1023/A:1017974505642. ^ Enriquez, P. ; Mikkola, H. "Comparative study of general public owl knowledge in Costa Rica, Central America and Malawi, Africa". 160–166 In: J. Duncan, D. Johnson, T. Nicholls, (Eds). Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere. General Technical Report NC-190, USDA Forest Service, St. Paul, Minnesota. 635 pp. ^ Lewis DP (2005)., Owls in Mythology and Culture. Retrieved on 15 September 2007 ^ Dupree, N. "An Interpretation of the Role of the Hoopoe in Afghan Folklore and Magic". 85 (3): 173–193. 1974. 9716553. JSTOR 1260073. ^ Fox-Davies, A. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. Bloomsbury. ^ Head, Matthew (1997). "Birdsong and the Origins of Music". Journal of the Royal Musical Association. 122 (1): 1–23. 1093/jrma/122. 1. ^ Clark, Suzannah (2001). Music Theory and Natural Order from the Renaissance to the Early Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77191-9. ^ Reich, Ronni (15 October 2010). "NJIT professor finds nothing cuckoo in serenading our feathered friends". Star Ledger. Retrieved 19 June 2011. ^ Taylor, Hollis (21 March 2011). "Composers' Appropriation of Pied Butcherbird Song: Henry Tate's "undersong of Australia" Comes of Age". Journal of Music Research Online. 2. ^ Fuller, Errol (2000). Extinct Birds (2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York. ISBN 0-19-850837-9 ^ Steadman, D. Extinction and Biogeography in Tropical Pacific Birds, University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-77142-7 ^ "BirdLife International announces more Critically Endangered birds than ever before". 14 May 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009. ^ Kinver, Mark (13 May 2009). "Birds at risk reach record high". BBC News Online. Retrieved 15 May 2009. ^ Norris K, Pain D (eds, 2002). Conserving Bird Biodiversity: General Principles and their Application Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78949-3 ^ Brothers, N. "Albatross mortality and associated bait loss in the Japanese longline fishery in the southern ocean". 55 (3): 255–268. 1016/0006-3207(91)90031-4. ^ Wurster, D. ; Wurster, C. ; Strickland, W. (July 1965). "Bird Mortality Following DDT Spray for Dutch Elm Disease". Ecology. 46 (4): 488–499. 2307/1934880. JSTOR 1934880. ; Wurster, D. (1965). "Bird Mortality after Spraying for Dutch Elm Disease with DDT". 148 (3666): 90–91. Bibcode: 1965Sci... 148... 90W. 148. 3666. 90. PMID 14258730. ^ Blackburn, T; Cassey, P; Duncan, R; Evans, K; Gaston, K (24 September 2004). "Avian Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands". 305 (5692): 1955–1958. Bibcode: 2004Sci... 305. 1955B. 1101617. PMID 15448269. ^ Butchart, S. ; Stattersfield, A. ; Collar, N (2006). "How many bird extinctions have we prevented? " (PDF). 40 (3): 266–79. 1017/S0030605306000950. External links This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Bird " dated 2008-01-05, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ( Audio help) Birdlife International – Dedicated to bird conservation worldwide; has a database with about 250, 000 records on endangered bird species. Theory on the real capabilities of birds "vision" – New findings in the field. Bird biogeography Birds and Science from the National Audubon Society Cornell Lab of Ornithology "Bird" at the Encyclopedia of Life Essays on bird biology North American Birds for Kids Sora – Searchable online research archive; Archives of the following ornithological journals The Auk, Condor, Journal of Field Ornithology', North American Bird Bander, Studies in Avian Biology, Pacific Coast Avifauna, and the Wilson Bulletin. The Internet Bird Collection – A free library of videos of the world's birds The Institute for Bird Populations, California List of field guides to birds, from the International Field Guides database RSPB bird identifier – Interactive identification of all UK birds.

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Country=USA Duration=93 minutes When the world's greatest spy meets the woman of his dreams, he abandons his adventurous existence and settles into the security of suburbia Writed by=Mark Famiglietti.

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Spy intervention. Spy intervention movie 2018. Spy intervention scene. VOTE NOW 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Play Sound Please enter your birth date to watch this video: You are not allowed to view this material at this time. Starring: Blake Anderson, Brian Sacca, Brittany Furlan, Dave Sheridan, Drew Van Acker, Ken Holmes, Lane Garrison, Max Silvestri, Migs Govea, Natasha Bassett, Poppy Delevingne, Winslow Bright Summary: When the world's greatest spy meets the woman of his dreams, he abandons his adventurous existence and settles into the security of suburbia. Genre(s): Action, Adventure, Comedy Rating: Not Rated Runtime: 93 min Critic reviews are not available for this movie yet. By Metascore By User Score More From Spy Intervention.

Spy intervention subtitles. Spy intervention movie rating. Spy intervention 2018 cast. When Corey Gage (Drew Van Acker), the world’s greatest spy, suddenly meets the woman of his dreams (Poppy Delevingne), he decides to abandon his adventurous existence and settles for the security of suburbia – a quaint existence he’s never known. It doesn’t take long for him to be completely bored and while he refuses to admit it, when an evil plot to ruin the world pushes his former spy friend (Blake Anderson) to enact a “spy intervention, ” he is easily convinced that if he returns to his old life, the adventure will not only help save his listless marriage, it will also save the world. Action Adventure Comedy Drew Mylrea Drew Van Acker Poppy Delevingne Dave Sheridan Blake Anderson Brittany Furlan Natasha Bassett Lane Garrison Winslow Bright Brian Sacca Ken Holmes Max Silvestri Migs Govea Billy Thomas Myott Ruza Madarevic Ivy Rose Lynn Sprockefeller Pictures Cinedigm Spy Intervention release date for Cinema, VOD February 14, 2020 3 Weeks Ago (US) Release Dates! Report Date / Submit Product Report Date / Submit Product Spy Intervention was released on Cinema and VOD 24d ago in the US. Blu-ray TBA Confirmed 1 Cinema February 14, 2020 Confirmed 3 DVD TBA Confirmed 2 VOD February 14, 2020 Confirmed 1 Blu-ray TBA Confirmed 1 Cinema TBA Confirmed 3 DVD TBA Confirmed 2 VOD TBA Confirmed 1 Show Full List We will only notify you about the most important info & release updates Notify me when Spy Intervention is available. Already a member? Login Here 7 users are already tracking Image Gallery Spy Intervention release date for Cinema, VOD February 14, 2020 3 Weeks Ago (US) We will only notify you about the most important info & release updates Notify me when Spy Intervention is available. Already a member? Login Here 7 users are already tracking Release Dates! Report Date / Submit Product Report Date / Submit Product Spy Intervention was released on Cinema and VOD 24d ago in the US. Blu-ray TBA Confirmed 1 Cinema February 14, 2020 Confirmed 3 DVD TBA Confirmed 2 VOD February 14, 2020 Confirmed 1 Blu-ray TBA Confirmed 1 Cinema TBA Confirmed 3 DVD TBA Confirmed 2 VOD TBA Confirmed 1 Show Full List Image Gallery We will only notify you about the most important info & release updates Notify me when Spy Intervention is available. Already a member? Login Here 7 users are already tracking.

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Spy intervention (2020) trailer. Spy interventions. Spy intervention bande annonce vf. Spy intervention cast. Spy intervention lors. BUY TICKETS NOW Release date: February 14, 2020 Studio: Cinedigm Director: Drew Mylrea MPAA Rating: N/A Screenwriters:, Lane Garrison Starring: Drew Van Acker, Poppy Delevigne, Poppy Delevingne, Blake Anderson, Natasha Bassett, Brittany Furlan, Max Silvestri, Dave Sheridan Genre: Comedy, Action Plot Summary: In Spy Intervention, when Corey Gage, the world’s greatest spy, suddenly meets the woman of his dreams, he decides to abandon his adventurous existence and settles for the security of suburbia – a quaint existence he’s never known. It doesn’t take long for him to be completely bored and while he refuses to admit it, when an evil plot to ruin the world pushes his former spy friend to enact a “spy intervention, ” he is easily convinced that if he returns to his old life, the adventure will not only help save his listless marriage, it will also save the world.




Spy Intervention - by voberpercpitch1974, March 16, 2020
3.4/ 5stars

Genres musical mystery Emma. (laptop)

3.3 (99%) 782 votes

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Country - UK
Eleanor Catton, Jane Austen
Autumn de Wilde
Genre - Drama
actors - Tanya Reynolds
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